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Questions tagged [aqueous-solution]

For questions relating to compounds dissolved in water and resulting reactions.

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Insoluble salts and Gibbs free energy

Is it true that according to gibbs free energy equation, insoluble salts such as AgCl don't dissolve because the process would be too endothermic? The right side of the equation, TΔS, would have to be ...
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33 views

Can the ions of dissolved salts be physically separated with a strong enough external electric field?

Say you had a arbitrary amount of sodium chloride dissolved in water. Could an external electric field (e.g. the electrically charged plates in Millikan's oil drop experiment) physically pull apart ...
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Will a reverse osmosis membrane exclude perfluorobutanoic acid?

I recently did a water quality test and it showed a detectable level of perfluorobutanoic acid, a potentially dangerous carboxylate PFC. Will a reverse osmosis water purification system exclude this ...
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31 views

Reaction of soluble salts

If we were to mix two soluble salts together, for instance sodium nitrate and potassium chloride together, and their products are also soluble, will any reaction still occur? Say if we were to boil ...
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58 views

Wetting agent for H2O2 solution

I need to increase the wetting of an $\ce{H2O2}$ solution on ceramic surfaces. Does anyone know of a common chemical I can use for this? The properties it would ideally have are: Increases wetting ...
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286 views

vinegar + baking soda = yields far smaller volume of CO2 gas than calculation

I experimented CO2 generation by adding 4 g of 25% acetic acid water solution (=1g of acetic acid) to 1.4g of pure baking soda. But this mixture yielded only 50% less than the calculated amount 373 mL ...
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92 views

Entropy as the driving force for osmosis

How is entropy responsible for osmosis and is movement of solvent possible from its higher concentration to lower concentration? By concentration, I will be referring to the concentration of solvent ...
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42 views

double replacement [closed]

$$\ce{KNO3(aq) + BaCl2(aq) -> KCl(aq) + Ba(NO3)2(aq)}$$ I found products but I noticed in product that both of them are in the aqueous phase. So actually no reaction occurs? Does a reaction need ...
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417 views

What is the net ionic equation of the following?

Aqueous chlorine is added to a solution of aluminum bromide in a single replacement reaction which forms no precipitate and bromine liquid. Determine the net ionic equation. Since this is a single ...
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1answer
36 views

Water boiling with salt and without it [closed]

Does 1L of water with salt boil faster or slower than one with the same amount of water but without salt? What I know is that since when you add salt to the water the temperature of boiling increase ...
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1answer
39 views

Why don't soluble gases that evolve in a reaction remain in solution?

Take for instance the following process: $$\text{2NaCl}_{\ (s)} + \text{H}_2\text{SO}_{4 \ (aq)} \to \text{2HCL}_{\ (g)} + \text{Na}_2\text{SO}_{4 \ (aq)} $$ Why does the evolved gas leave the ...
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Diffusion of CO2 and O2 in Water/Atmosphere System

Consider the following experiment: One reservoir of pure water is interfacing the atmosphere at standard condition. Both are at rest and at the same temperature. Both have no internal gradients (ie:...
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Does dissolving sodium carbonate in water produce carbon dioxide?

Does dissolving sodium carbonate in water produce carbon dioxide? I have been thinking about this for a long time but I'm getting inconsistent answers online. My thinking is that $\ce{CO3^2-}$ ...
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1answer
47 views

What is the proper way to prepare a solution aiming to minimize errors?

I am a undergraduate student in chemistry, and my university is very weak in teaching solution preparation. I need to prepare a 10 mg / L methylene blue solution and now the way I do is, using an ...
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1answer
50 views

Making sulfate from elemental sulfur [closed]

I have $\approx\pu{2 g}$ of elemental sulfur that I need to convert to dissolved sulfate in DI water. What's the easiest lab chemistry that will get me there?
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46 views

Do bases undergo dissociation or ionisation in aqueous solution?

What do bases undergo when dissolved in water: ionisation or dissociation or both? Some books say ionisation while others say dissociation. What is the correct answer?
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517 views

Buffer Solution with Strong Acid?

I was thinking: Could we could make a strong acid-strong base buffer solution? Take, for instance, a mixture of 1 L $\ce{HCl}$ (0.1 M) and 1 L of aqueous salt, $\ce{Na_2SO_4}$ (also 0.1 M), note that $...
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How does a negatively-charged ion behave in the electrical field of biphasic systems

The following is the electrostatic potential plot along the z-axis in a liquid-liquid biphasic system (a ionic-liquid vs water). There are some negatively-charged ions in the positive side of z (z > ...
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3answers
223 views

How to determine if an unknown is potassium chloride or potassium bromate?

In class, we were given unknown substances. I've narrowed the possible substances down to either potassium chloride or potassium bromate. We were given several acids, indicators, and other chemicals (...
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71 views

Two differing methods for vanadium extraction

The following sources (Source 1, Source 2) both cover the extraction of Vanadium (specifically Vanadium Pentoxide, $\ce{V2O5}$) from petroleum residue (petcoke and flyash respecitvely). However when ...
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35 views

How to meausre ion interferences in solution?

Is there a way to quantitatively measure the interference of different metal ions in solution? I plan to measure concentration of Pb(II), Fe(II), and Cu(II) in solution together using a ...
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1answer
101 views

Find the concentration of proton after adding a acid to NaOH [closed]

I have this simple problem that I cannot figure out though, only the first part. 100 ml of 1.0 $\frac{mol}{L}$ $NaOH_(aq)$ contains ( a ) g of NaOH. After mixing 100 ml of 1.0 $\frac{mol}{L}$ $...
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64 views

How does the water pollutant sodium nitrate affect the concentrations of other ions in tap (dam) water? [closed]

Context In my assignment I've been given two water samples from the hinze dam. The first sample has been untouched, however the second has been contaminated with an unknown ionic compound. To ...
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2answers
451 views

If acyl chlorides are reacted with aqueous ammonia, will carboxylic acids also be formed?

As part of my A-level chemistry course, I have been taught that an acyl chloride will react violently with water to produce a carboxylic acid and hydrochloric acid. I have also been taught that an ...
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58 views

Formulation of a suspension of Magnesium Hydroxide

For a school project of mine, I have to formulate a suspension of Magnesium Hydroxide which contains at least 50% of solid matter. This suspension is prepared from Magnesium Oxide 98% with a ...
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2answers
561 views

KCl + CuCl2 in solution, is there a reaction?

I'm wondering if the reaction of $\ce{KCl + CuCl2}$ in solution (aq) will produce any products (have a net ionic equation/solid precipitate)? Using the metal activity series, I see that potassium is ...
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1answer
54 views

Is the ionic solution of a half-cell part of the electrode in a electrochemical cell? [closed]

A simple electrochemical cell consists of two half-cells, that is: a metal solid submerged in a solution. Additionally, there is salt bridge connecting the half-cells. Ex: $\ce{Cu(s)}$ in $\ce{CuSO4(...
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where to find data on thermal decomposition of polysaccharide in aqeuous solution

This is a follow up of my previous question: "effect of over-pressure on lowering viscosity of polysaccharide solution" I would like to know where to find data on thermal decomposition of ...
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1answer
60 views

Is the electrical conductivity only measurable in aqueous solutions? [closed]

I have been looking for other ways to measure it, but all I've found is through aqueous solutions. So I want to know if there's another way to do it, or why it isn't possible through other means.
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24 views

Non-hydrate forming salts?

Are there any water-soluble salts that don't form hydrates? Hydration seems very thermodynamically favorable, as evidenced by its abundance. It also makes sense since the solvation and hydration ...
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1answer
44 views

How to determine which ions will pair to form a compound in an aqueous solution?

Let us assume we have an aqueous solution with the ions $\ce{A+}$, $\ce{B+}$, $\ce{C-}$ and $\ce{D-}$. Which ions will form a bond and why? Will the compound formed be $\ce{AC}$ and $\ce{BD}$ or $\ce{...
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1answer
150 views

How many protons does phenolphthalein lose in basic solutions?

So, I've looked it up and Wikipedia claims that two protons are released by Phenolphthalein when pH is over 8.2, but I've seen other sources that claim only one proton is lost. So, is it really just ...
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1answer
77 views

Predict melting point of water CaCl2 solution

I'm doing a science project for my school. I experimentally measured the melting point of water-salt solutions, and I want to compare my results to theoretical melting points, but I encountered a ...
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1answer
24 views

Is there a point where further dilution of ethanol is not exothermic?

Diluting concentrated ethanol with water is exothermic. Diluting 95% refined spirit into 40% vodka makes the resulting product definitely warm. Dilution of 60% absinthe with water that is cool, but ...
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122 views

Number of water molecules in a box to simulate liquid water [closed]

I have seen that depending on the simulation approach, different number of water molecules are employed for studying liquid water properties. 32 in early DFT calculations The electronic structure of ...
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217 views

Reactions between aqueous or solid LiOH

I've been working on a project to absorb CO$_2$ from fossil fuel power plants. I found these reactions: $$\ce{2Li(s) + 2H2O(l) → 2 LiOH(aq) + H2(g)} \tag{1} $$ $$\ce{2 LiOH(s) + CO_2(g) → Li2CO_3(s)...
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Why is fluoride good for your teeth?

The main component of tooth enamel is calcium hydroxyapatite. I know fluoride ions can replace hydroxide ions in the enamel matrix, slowing the rate of enamel demineralization. Why does hydrofluoric ...
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0answers
54 views

Relative concentrations of ions in acid-base reaction

An aqueous solution of ammonia has of pH = x, and a solution of hydrochloric acid has pH =y; it is also known that x + y = 14, and x > 11. If equal volumes of these two solutions are mixed together, ...
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90 views

Crystallisation problem

I have an aqueous solution of N,N-dimethylphenylalanine methyl ester hydrochloride and I need to crystallise it as a salt. I'm afraid of increasing the temperature or the concentration of acid due to ...
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1answer
53 views

Calculating the change in pH upon diluting an acid

What volume of water is added to $\pu{400 ml}$ of $\ce{HCL}$ solution so that the pH of the solution increases by 1 unit This is how far i went but the answer says $\pu{1000 ml }$ where am I wrong is ...
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1answer
87 views

Chemiluminescence of luminol

Recently I have tried to perform an experiment with luminol and hydrogen peroxide (with potassium ferricyanide as the catalyst). Upon googling, I found two ways to conduct this experiment and was ...
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1answer
311 views

Can you create pure sodium metal by electrolysis of aqueous NaCl rather than molten NaCl?

I was researching how to make pure sodium from salt because I think it would be interesting to do. In all of the articles I read that talked about using NaCl they said to melt it and then use ...
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3answers
361 views

Saturated vs Supersaturated

The way I was told is that a saturated solution contains the maximum amount of solute and a supersaturated solution contains more solute than a solution can hold at a particular temperature. But I was ...
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1answer
75 views

Flaw in my logic on Henry's Law?

It states mathematically $ p=Kx $ where $x$ is mole fraction of dissolved gas and $p$ is partial pressure of the gas. Dissolution of gases is exothermic, so with increase in temperature, solubility $x$...
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Can a molecular sieve be used increase the saturation of a fructose solution?

The Problem: Let's say we have an experiment where we are attempting to grow rock candy crystals by letting a solution of sugar crystalize on a wooden dowel. However, an error may have been made in ...
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2answers
639 views

Why does acetic acid (CH3COOH) conduct electricity the worst in comparison to HBr, HCOONa and NaNO3 [closed]

Which of the given substances (in an aqueous solution) conducts electricity the worst: $\ce{CH3COOH}$, $\ce{HBr}$, $\ce{HCOONa}$ and $\ce{NaNO3}$? I've found this assingment included in the 2017 ...
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Acid/base separation in nanofiltration

How do semi-permiable membranes handle salts that can separate into an acid and a base based on the "rules" of the membrane? For example, say I have a nanofiltration membrane that rejects ...
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1answer
169 views

What is happening to my chlorine dioxide when I add too much bleach or citric acid?

I have some sodium chlorite and Chinese mystery powder which are meant to be mixed with water, then mixed together to form chlorine dioxide. I wanted to try a more food safe (and less mysterious) ...
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1answer
276 views

What's the role of sodium carbonate and hydrochloric acid for the neutralization of disaccharides into monosaccharides?

A couple of days ago we conducted the following experiment at school: Add 5mL of an aqueous solution of sucrose ($\ce{C6H22O11}$) to 1mL of concentrated hydrochloric acid and heat it for 10 minutes....
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Why is Iron very rare in seawater compared to many other elements?

I don't know the associated technical words to research this question. There was high presence of Iron in the oceans in anoxic precambrian times, and today copper is 5 times more abundant in the ...