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Questions tagged [aqueous-solution]

For questions relating to compounds dissolved in water and resulting reactions.

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Would the change in enthalpy (ΔH) for the dissolution of urea in water be positive or negative?

To test the properties of a fertilizer, 15.0 g of urea, NH2CONH2(s), is dissolved in 150mL of water in a simple calorimeter. A temperature change from 20.6 C to 17.8 C is measured. Calculate the molar ...
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Cleaning a stubborn Electrospray residue

I have an electrospray ionization capillary tip that sprays into a chamber that contains some circuit boards. An aqueous CsI sample is apparently causing a white residue to build up on these boards ...
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2answers
42 views

Does the amount of solute affect rate of solvation?

I know that in order to increase the rate of solvation, you need to increase how often solute and solvent particles come into contact. You can do it by: agitating the mixture increasing the surface ...
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2answers
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Question on mixing of solutions

If 3 L of 1 M NaOH solution is prepared by mixing properties of stock solutions of $x$ L of 2.5 M NaOH and $y$ L of 0.4 M NaOH and no water is to be used, find $x : y$. My attempt: $$3 = 2.5x + 0.4y$...
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How does crystallization of an ingredient affect its concentration in solution? [on hold]

Let's say I make a 5% aqueous solution with ingredient A at 90°C. After the solution cools down to room temperature it crystallizes. Is the ingredient A still at 5% or has its concentration changed ...
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3answers
23k views

Is magnesium sulfate basic, neutral or acidic?

A question in my college test was whether $\ce{MgSO4}$ is neutral, acidic or basic. I was told to solve this kind of problem by hydrolyzing any ions that do not "come from" a strong acid or a strong ...
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3answers
593 views

Calculating the density of a saturated salt solution

Is there a way to calculate the density of a saturated salt solution from the solubility limits or does it have to be experimentally determined? First instinct, is to add the mass of the salt to ...
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2answers
765 views

Can I successfully use a humidifier to distribute caffeine to wake someone up without the usual morning drowsiness?

Would I have any success putting coffee in a humidifier? Or perhaps water mixed with caffeine powder? So I could wake up without a jolting alarm clock, feeling like I already had a cup of coffee? I ...
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2answers
507 views

Predicting pH of an acidic salt of an weak acid and weak base

Suppose we want to calculate pH of an $\ce{NH4HCO3}$ solution of known concentration. Now, $\ce{NH4+}$ will be hydrolised to give $\ce{H+}$ ions. Some $\ce{HCO3-}$ ions will be converted to (i) $\ce{...
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Theoretical Resistance Relationship of Electrolytes [closed]

I'm a senior physics/chemistry student working on a practical assignment where I am trying to identify the resistance of CuSO4 in solution (distilled water). I have recorded my data and determined it ...
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2answers
48 views

Precipitating silver(I) salts from the solution of barium(II) cyanate and iodide

Consider a $\pu{10.0 mL}$ solution containing $\pu{1.0e-10 M}$ each of $\ce{Ba(CN)2}$ and $\ce{BaI2}$. If $\pu{3.5e-9 mol}$ of $\ce{AgNO3(s)}$ is added to this solution, will any precipitate(s) form? ...
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Why doesn't open-chain glucose react with water readily in aqueous solution?

Though the exact number given varies from 0.02% to 3%, it's well agreed that glucose spends a very small percentage of its time in aqueous solution as a linear aldehyde. Glucose's overwhelming ...
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2answers
35 views

What happens when mixing elemental mercury with sodium hypochlorite solution [closed]

Say you spilled elemental mercury from a thermometer and used household bleach on it, what would be the reaction if any?
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2answers
232 views

Does the salinity in seawater affect the process of alkaline hydrolysis?

I am an architecture student doing a project on crematorium spaces. I am looking at resomation or alkaline hydrolysis as an alternative method of disposition of a body. From what I gather from ...
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2answers
860 views

Relative acidity of aqueous LiF, SnCl2, and YCl3

Which one of the following salts make the highest and lowest pH when dissolved in water? $$\ce{LiF, SnCl2, YCl3}$$ My approach was : considering the corresponding aqua acids, the order of acidity ...
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2answers
29 views

Liquid Versus Aqueous States? [closed]

I am studying ionic equations and have encountered the statement of the phase of matter in the equation since ionic substances tend to react differently based on their phase. I know that (l) state ...
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0answers
16 views

Preparation of Copper (II) Sulfate Pentahydrate Solution

how would you make a solution of Copper (II) Sulfate Pentahydrate to achieve 150, 200, 250 and 300 mgL−1 concentration of copper? I do not have the anhydrous version of the solute. Also, when I ...
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2answers
21 views

Influence of pH on precipitate crystallite sizes?

It's normally assumed that a higher pH of solution would slow nucleation rates and hence lead to larger crystal formation. I've found literature that it is due to solid-liquid inter-facial tension. ...
2
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1answer
828 views

Solubility of Alum

What is solubility product of $\ce{K2SO4. Al2(SO4)3.24H2O}$? Can we consider $K_\mathrm{sp}$ of salts $\ce{K2SO4}$ and $\ce{Al2(SO4)3}$ or something else to find solubility? I know that Sulphate ...
2
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1answer
32 views

What is the minimum operating temperature of chemical hand warmers?

I have been looking at chemical hand warmers such as Hot Hands, Grabber and HotSnapZ. Unfortunately, I cannot find a minimum operating temperature for these types of devices. Logic tells us that they ...
2
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1answer
45 views

Formation of silica from TEOS

Usually tetraethyl orthosilicate/tetraethoxy silane (TEOS) is mixed with both ethanol and water to produce silica in a sol-gel process. I am curious what happens if one adds TEOS to water at a high pH,...
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1answer
45 views

What is the percent of potassium as K₂O in the fertilizer sample?

The solubility of sodium tetraphenylborate in water is $\pu{470 g/L}$ while the solubility of potassium tetraphenylborate in water is $\pu{1.8e–4 g/L}$. Due to the orders of magnitude difference in ...
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2answers
30 views

Unit analysis for neutralization reaction

What volume of $\pu{0.500 mol L-1}$ $\ce{HCl}$ (in $\pu{mL}$) is required to neutralize $\pu{2.02 g}$ of solid $\ce{NaOH}$ pellets? So far I have tried regular unit analysis: 2.02 g NaOH * 1mol ...
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2answers
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Neutralization reaction between ammonia and nitric acid

Complete and balance the following molecular equation (in aqueous solution); include phase labels. Then, write the net ionic equation. $~\ce{NH_3 + HNO_3 -> ?}$ I thought that the acid $\ce{...
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2answers
52 views

Determining Kc for the equilibrium involving iron thiocyanate using spectrophotometric data

$$\ce{Fe^3+(aq) + SCN-(aq) <=> [Fe(SCN)]^2+(aq)}$$ $\pu{12.0 mL}$ of $\pu{0.00110 mol L-1}$ $\ce{Fe^3+}$ was added to $\pu{6.00 mL}$ of $\pu{0.00140 mol L-1}$ $\ce{SCN-}$. The absorbance of ...
2
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1answer
123 views

Percent Dissociated from Titration Curve

Question 818 references the titration curve. Answer is A because $\ce{H+}$ conc $= 10^{-4}$. This is conc of dissociated acid. The conc of the undissociated acid is the original concentration minus ...
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1answer
29 views

How can I reduce sodium chloride levels in water, without removing other minerals?

How can I reduce sodium chloride levels in water, without removing other minerals? Good day, I make a sole from Himalayan Salt which I add to my Reverse Osmosis treated water to ensure my body isn't ...
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1answer
43 views

Why is maximum buffer capacity for some diprotic buffers not when pH = pKa?

According to Rajkovic et al. [1]: $$β = \frac{[\ce{H+}]}{K_\mathrm{w}} + 2.303\cdot\frac{[\ce{H+}]\cdot K_\mathrm{a}\cdot c}{[\ce{H+}] + K_\mathrm{a}}$$ where $K_\mathrm{a}$ is the ...
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1answer
44 views

Effects of Ka on the Half-Equivalence Point

I'm new to studying chemistry at a university level and am currently reviewing acid-base titrations. I am wondering about the relationship between your ionization constant for a weak acid ($K_\mathrm{...
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1answer
27 views

Should I include ions from the solvent in solubility product constant calculations?

I'm trying to determine the Solubility Constant $K_\mathrm{sp}$ of $\ce{Ba(NO3)2}$ dissolved in nitric acid solution $\ce{HNO3}$ from experimental data. $\ce{HNO3}$ will be mostly dissociated so ...
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1answer
101 views

Does electrolysis of aqueous tin(II) chloride produce Cl₂, SnCl₄ or both?

When applying a current to an aqueous solution of tin(II) chloride, tin crystals grow from the cathode. However, I'm not sure about the anode. It seems like there are two possible reactions: $$\ce{2 ...
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H+ vs HCl in the gastric juice

Parietal cells in the stomach are known to expel $\ce{H+}$ ions into the gastric juice to keep the pH acidic. When $\ce{H+}$ $\ce{[H3O+]}$ can fully function as acid in the gastric juice, why do cells ...
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28 views

Can a solute be physically filtered out of a solvent?

Suppose that I have a substance dissolved in water. I then pour the solution into a filter. The filter's pores are large enough to allow the passage of water, but not the passage of the substance. In ...
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1answer
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Which ions determine ionic conductivity of a salt solution?

Let's take $\ce{ZnSO4}$ salt solution in water for example. So the ions inside my solution will be $\ce{H+}$, $\ce{OH-}$, $\ce{Zn^2+}$ and $\ce{SO4^2-}$. My questions are: Is the ionic conductivity ...
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1answer
2k views

Can I boil off chlorine? Does it evaporate quickly at high temperatures?

Can I boil off chlorine? Does it evaporate quickly at high temperatures? I am asking because I want to remove it from drinking water, and I don't want to wait 24 hours for it to evaporate naturally.
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1answer
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Is NaCl the only precipitate when you add HCl to concentrated NaCl [closed]

When aqueous HCl is added to a saturated salt water solution, is NaCl the only precipitate or does some HCl crystalize as well? Sources online say that NaCl crystallizes but they don't say what ...
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1answer
25 views

Is it stupid to put used acid into a pool after cleaning the chlorinator? [closed]

I have a salt pool, and when the chlorinator salts up with calcium, I clean it with a diluted acidic solution. What happens to the acidic solution after the reaction happens? I.e., does the pH change?...
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1answer
22 views

Copper powder amount dissoved in water [closed]

How much copper powder dispersed into 2 liters of water will result in a 10 ppm concentration? I am not a chemist.
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Can a brine water electrolysis be looped?

Electrolysis of brine yields hydrogen and chlorine gases and aqueous $\ce{NaOH}$. So is it possible to combine the gases to form $\ce{HCl}$ gas, and mix it back with the aqueous $\ce{NaOH}$, so it ...
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1answer
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When I place a straw in carbontated drink and blow, more gas bubbles rise to the surface?

When I place a straw in carbontated drink and blow (making bubbling noises), more gas bubbles rise to the surface. The gas bubbles which rise to the surface are from the carbon dioxide gas dissolved ...
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1answer
48 views

How to make oil more heavy?

I would like to increase the density of a given oil (or anything that repels water) so that it is slightly heavier than water; to be able to precisely control how slow the oil would fall in the water. ...
2
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1answer
44 views

How to take a sample of a hot salt solution without it precipitating in the cooler glassware due to the difference in solubilities at different temps?

I'm doing an investigation to see the effect of temperature on the solubility product of strontium hydroxide. I made a supersaturated solution left in the oven overnight at 85°C for equilibrium to be ...
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1answer
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How does monoethanolamine (MEA) increase pH?

I know pH of a solution increases with increase concentration of $\ce{OH-}$. I'm wondering: when adding MEA, is the $\ce{OH-}$ group from the MEA breaking off, or is it the whole MEA molecule taking ...
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1answer
37 views

Reactions between Ca(OH)2 and CO2, and Sr(OH)2 and CO2

So I'm doing an investigation, and it involves using supersaturated solutions of Ca(OH)2 and of Sr(OH)2. I notice that there's always a flaky precipitate formed on top. I need to know about the ...
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1answer
38 views

Identifying Lewis acid

What is the Lewis acid on the reactants side? $$\ce{HNO2(aq) + HPO4^{2-}(aq) <=> NO2-(aq) + H2PO4-(aq)}$$ The book says it is the $\ce{H+}$ only, not the whole molecule of the nitrous acid, ...
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Mechanism for removal of pesticides from fruit by sodium bicarbonate

When Googling around for methods to remove pesticides from fruits and vegetables, a study commonly referred to from some news sites (e.g. here and here ) is one where soaking apples in a sodium ...
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1answer
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Polyprotic Acid Titrations

Titrating a mixture of strong and weak acids will yield endpoints such that the volume of base required to reach each endpoint will be different for each acid, e.g. in a mixture of HCl and CH3COOH, ...
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38 views

Qualitative analysis of iron(III) salt

Why will $\ce{Fe^3+}$ give brown ring test? In my textbook it was given that ferric ion gives brown ring too. I am confused, if ferric ion is already present, then what will reduce nitrate ion to ...
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how can I predict the rate of water ions precipitation on a surface?

Consider a titanium pot that contains 1kg water with the following ions: $[Ca^{2+}]=22000$ ppm, $[Mg^{2+}]=1500$ ppm,$[Sr^{2+}]=791$ ppm,$[Na^{1+}]=48000$ ppm,$[Cl^{1-}]=120000$ ppm,$[SO_4^{2-}]=...
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1answer
2k views

How to calculate pH of solution made of H3PO4 and Na3PO4? [closed]

I am unable to calculate the $\mathrm{pH}$ of a solution made of $\pu{0.1 M}$ $\ce{H3PO4}$ and $\pu{0.05 M}$ $\ce{Na3PO4}$. How to set the approximation and which ions are present at the ...