Questions tagged [aqueous-solution]

For questions relating to compounds dissolved in water and resulting reactions and acid-base equilibria.

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39 views

Preparing aqueous solution of ethanol

You need to prepare $\pu{250.0 mL}$ of an aqueous solution of ethanol in the concentration will be $\pu{0.500 mol L-1}$. You have $\pu{100 mL}$ of a commercial solution of ethanol in water $(35.0\% \,...
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1answer
65 views

Are all gases equal in their ability to carry with them lower volatility matter at a given temperature? [closed]

As we all know water is a great solvent in it's liquid form relative to other substances. I wonder however how it performs as a gas relative to other stuff. Does anyone know how well steam carries ...
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29 views

Activity of 1 M NaCl

I am quoting a sentence from this website. It said: "Thus, if γ (the activity coefficient) > 1 then ΔHkM is a positive quantity, indicating that the mixing process is endothermic." Why ...
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1answer
293 views

Why is maximum buffer capacity for some diprotic buffers not when pH = pKa?

According to Rajkovic et al. [1]: $$β = \frac{[\ce{H+}]}{K_\mathrm{w}} + 2.303\cdot\frac{[\ce{H+}]\cdot K_\mathrm{a}\cdot c}{[\ce{H+}] + K_\mathrm{a}}$$ where $K_\mathrm{a}$ is the dissociation ...
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1answer
40 views

Indirectly Measuring Diffusion of NO2 into Water

I am working on a data science project with the central hypothesis is that air-born pollutants can become water-born through diffusion. The example I am using as a proof of concept is $\ce{NO2}$. The ...
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1answer
64 views

Finding Ka of a monoprotic weak acid from pH and concentration of added sodium salt

A solution of $\pu{0.36 M}$ of the sodium salt of a generic monoprotic weak acid $\ce{HA}$ has a $\mathrm{pH}$ value of $8.782.$ $K_\mathrm{a} = ?$ Why doesn't the following formula work in this ...
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Estimating pH with strong acids (H2SO4) [closed]

estimate the pH of a solution that contains 0.1 M each of Na2SO4 and H2SO4 So I know H2SO4 completely disassociates so I have 0.1 mol H+ and 0.1 mol HSO4. Na2SO4 disassociates into Na and SO4 such ...
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1answer
20 views

Hydrogen and Hydrogen ion

Is it correct that a hydrogen atom only has 1 electron and 1 proton since the atomic mass is 1? Also, is the hydrogen ion composed of a single proton and no electrons? In an ionization process we know ...
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2answers
62 views

Copper anode dissolves in electrolysis of copper sulfate solution [closed]

I did an experiment with copper sulfate where you place two copper rods in an aqueous solution of copper sulfate. You apply an electric current and copper metal builds up on the cathode. I noticed ...
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1answer
160 views

Why is brine solution more effective than granular salt in melting ice on a surface?

Why is a brine solution consisting of a small fraction of salt in water, more effective in melting ice on a surface, than just pure salt?
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3answers
154 views

Tap water pH adjustment using citric acid

I've lowered tap water pH from 7 to 6 using citric acid. After couple of hours pH raised again to 7. What is the reason for this raise? Citric acid overcomes waters buffering feature then raise the $...
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Generating hypochlorous acid for disinfecting water using HClO2

I use a product that contains $\pu{700 ppm}$ of $\ce{HClO}$ to disinfect water at $\pu{1 ml}$ per $\pu{1 l}$ and let it rest for about $\pu{2 hrs}$ before I use it so there is no $\ce{HClO}$ left ...
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Trying to understand electrical conductivity ranking of these 4 compounds [closed]

The electrical conductivities of the following 0.100 M solutions were measured in an apparatus that contained a light bulb as the indicator of conductivity. Rank the solutions in order of decreasing ...
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Co(NO3)2+Na3PO4=Co3(PO4)2+NaNO3 [closed]

Co(NO3)2+Na3PO4=Co3(PO4)2+NaNO3 How do I find initial moles?
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1answer
34 views

Aluminum powder from aluminum sulfate?

I recently did the experiment where you drop a piece of iron in an aqueous solution of copper sulfate. After a while, the piece of iron gets coated with a fluffy coating of copper that can be dried ...
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1answer
38 views

Determining the mass of a substance using calibration curve produced by HPLC

I hope everyone is doing well and safe! Yesterday, I was fortunate enough to be taught about how to read a chromatography calibration curve through this stackexchange! Special thanks to those who ...
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1answer
40 views

Vapors of Aqueous solutions

I'm dealing with a common photoresist developer TMAH (tetramethylammonium hydroxide) and attempting to design a vapor sensor for a sealed chamber. Now I havent been able to confirm what exactly is ...
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1answer
262 views

Reasons behind the different colors of a solution containing Iodine

Q) Iodine dissolves in a variety of solvents, forming solutions that are purple, brown or any intermediate shade. This property is due to: Hydrolysis of iodine Formation of crystalline adducts Charge ...
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1answer
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Homemade “milk of magnesia” (suspension of magnesium hydroxide in water)

I want to make homemade "milk of magnesia" as a suspension containing only magnesium hydroxide and water. I see that I can purchase a bag of magnesium hydroxide powder. Can I use this to ...
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2answers
41 views

Determining the formula of sodium carbonate hydrate using acid-base titration [closed]

I found this question online at mathsmadeeasy.com: Sodium carbonate exists in hydrated form, $\ce{Na2CO3 · x H2O},$ in the solid state. $\pu{3.5 g}$ of a sodium carbonate sample was dissolved in ...
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2answers
32 views

Composition of arcanite (potassium sulfate) agricultural grade. Potassium content of random drawn sample?

I bought potassium sulfate from this source: Potassium sulfate granulate I'm using it as a potassium additive in hydroponics. The composition is listed as K2O = 50%, S = 18%. This equals about 41.5% K ...
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1answer
25 views

Does PEO particle size decrease when dissolved in water?

I am looking to make metallic ink for inkjet printing and using PEO 1 wt% (MW ~600,000) as a binder. The print head I am hoping to use has a nozzle diameter of 80 microns. The metal powder dispersed ...
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26 views

Arrhenius acids and bases

According to the Arrhenius definition of acids: An Arrhenius acid is any species that increases the concentration of hydrogen ions in its aqueous solution. Hydrogen Chloride gas ionises in water to ...
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1answer
44 views

Behavior of ionic salts in solution

The electrons of an isolated sodium chloride bound pair in vacuum reside at a semi-classical level in their ground state, so that the Born-Oppenheimer approximation applies, and the 'molecule' acts ...
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30 views

Why is iron(II) sulfate hydrate more soluble in acid than in water?

In the lab I was told that iron(II) sulfate dissolves more readily in sulfuric acid than in $\ce{H2O}$ and hence we didn't use water. Can I get an explanation why please?
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1answer
34 views

Identification of aqueous solutions of sodium hydroxide, sodium acetate and potassium thiocyanate using nickel(II)

I'm very new to chem — taking an intro to chemistry course where we are currently focused on substance identification. I have two substances, both aqueous solutions of either $\ce{NaOH},$ $\ce{KSCN},$ ...
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1answer
72 views

Density of a sodium hydroxide solution

The specific gravity of a $50\%$ aqueous solution $\ce{NaOH}$ is $\pu{1.5298 g cm-3}.$ To my understanding, the $50\%$ means $50$ mass fraction $w,$ i.e. $\pu{500 g}$ $\ce{NaOH}$ in $\pu{500 g}$ $\ce{...
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2answers
6k views

Why would a solution of FeCl2 appear brown/yellow sort of like FeCl3?

If we prepare a solution of $\ce{FeCl2}$ by dissolving solid $\ce{FeCl2}$ powder in water, supposing the bottle of $\ce{FeCl2}$ was left open for sufficient time, is it possible for $\ce{FeCl2}$ to ...
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2answers
45 views

Is an aqueous solution of potassium bicarbonate acidic or basic in nature?

The following is the definition of an acid salt according to my textbook: The salts formed by the partial replacement of the replaceable hydrogen atoms (H+ ions) of an acid molecule by a metallic or ...
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41 views

How does a weak acid decrease the pH of water? [duplicate]

A strong acid has a $\mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a} < -1.74$ (or whatever the $\mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a}$ of hydronium $\ce{H3O+}$ is). Everything else is a weak acid. My interpretation of this is: strong ...
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46 views

Effect of dilution on equilibrium confusion

An example provided in Pearson Chemistry Queensland 12 by Nick Holmes et al:1 $$\ce{Fe^{3+}(aq) + SCN^-(aq) ⇌ FeSCN^{2+}(aq)}$$ The figure above shows the effect of doubling the volume of the system ...
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31 views

Zinc salt with a very high relative aqueous solubility?

Zinc bromide, iodide, and chloride are highly soluble in water, both in absolute terms, and relative to other metals. I think however that there is a zinc compound with even higher relative aqueous ...
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How to calculate volume of sample needed given an endpoint?

I did an EDTA titration where I poured $\pu{5mL}$ of hard water, $\pu{25mL}$ of deionized water, $\mathrm{pH}$ buffer, and an indicator into a flask. My endpoint was $\pu{10.77mL}$. However, how ...
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If we don't use liquids and solids for Keq and Q, what about for rate laws? [duplicate]

From my understanding, the reason you don't use liquids and solids for Keq and Q is because their concentrations don't change much during the course of a reaction. How can you then use solid reactants,...
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1answer
68 views

Find volume of ammonia gas required to prepare a solution of given pH [closed]

Calculate the volume of gaseous ammonia $(K_\mathrm{b} = \pu{1.8E-5})$ to dissolve (at NTP) in $\pu{100 mL}$ of water in order to obtain a solution with $\mathrm{pH} = 11.0.$ Consider volume variation ...
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1answer
45 views

Will a reverse osmosis membrane exclude perfluorobutanoic acid?

I recently did a water quality test and it showed a detectable level of perfluorobutanoic acid, a potentially dangerous carboxylate PFC. Will a reverse osmosis water purification system exclude this ...
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1answer
109 views

Common Ion Effect - Ionic Equilibrium

Question In which of the aqueous solutions of the following, dissociation of $\ce{NH4OH}$ will be minimum? A) $\ce{NaOH}$ B) $\ce{H2O}$ C) $\ce{NH4Cl}$ D) $\ce{NaCl}$ My Thoughts My book says that ...
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2answers
60 views

Does magnesium sulfate in aqueous solution form magnesium (hydrogen-)carbonate when hydrogen carbonat is present?

I'm using an additive of magnesium sulfate to complement my fertilizer. The additive lists the following ingredients: I know that it does NOT contain magnesium oxide, because due to historical / ...
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5answers
3k views

Is it possible to achieve a level of “truly zero” concentration? [duplicate]

If we take some aqueous solution and dilute it further and further, will the concentration of the solution ever get to zero? I would say no, simply because total dilution implies that all the ...
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1answer
43 views

Additive for water to increase the viscosity to a value between 5 and 20 cP [closed]

Is there an additive that I can add to water that will increase the viscosity to a value between $5$ and $\pu{20 cP}$? Ideally, I would like the mixture to be newtonian and since I will be working ...
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1answer
31 views

Creating 100mg/L aspirin solution

I plan on creating 100 mL of 100mg/L aspirin solution by dissolving 10 mg of pure aspirin powder in 100 mL of buffer solution (of different pHs). Problematically, aspirin doesn’t tend towards ...
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3answers
282 views

Mixing cobalt(III) hydroxide and thallium(III) hydroxide

A simple question on solutions is driving me crazy. At this point, I think the textbook's wrong. Here's the question: A saturated solution of cobalt(III) hydroxide $(K_\mathrm{sp} = \pu{1.6e-44})$ ...
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1answer
45 views

Molar conductivity of coordination compound [duplicate]

The compound is $\ce{[Cr(H2O)6]Cl3}$. Which isomer has least molar conductivity ? Correct answer : $\ce{[Cr(H2O)4Cl2]Cl.2H2O}$ My answer : $\ce{[Cr(H2O)3Cl3].3H2O}$ Molar conductivity is directly ...
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22 views

What is the pka of dibromoacetic acid?

There is a reference of 1.48 value at room temperature which is a different value from an experimental study.
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2answers
287 views

Does the salinity in seawater affect the process of alkaline hydrolysis?

I am an architecture student doing a project on crematorium spaces. I am looking at resomation or alkaline hydrolysis as an alternative method of disposition of a body. From what I gather from ...
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1answer
42 views

Conductivity of molten or aqueous salts [closed]

If there is a 1M aqueous solution of 1 liter NaCl (aq), and the molar conductivities of the solution and the chloride ions were found to be $x$ and $y$ respectively, is it accurate to say that the ...
3
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0answers
330 views

Number of moles of acidified potassium dichromate required to liberate 6 moles of iodine from an aqueous solution of iodate ions

I came across this question in a recent exam I had taken: How many moles of acidified $\ce{K2Cr2O7}$ is required to liberate 6 moles of $\ce{I2}$ from an aqueous solution of $\ce{I-}$ ? So this is ...
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1answer
82 views

Are Hansen solubility parameters available for inorganic salts or ionic molecules?

Are Hansen solubility parameters available for inorganic salts or ionic molecules (e.g. potassium oleate, potassium stearate, sodium dioctyl sulfosuccinate (AOT), sodium dodecyl benzol sulfonate (SDBS)...
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0answers
56 views

Effect of adding an acid or base to water with respect to concentration of ions

So I know that there's auto-ionization of water according to: $$\ce{2H2O <=> H3O+ +OH-} \tag{1}$$ If I have pure water where the concentrations of both $\ce{H3O+}$ and $\ce{OH-}$ is $10^{-7}$ ...
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1answer
40 views

What is the mixing enthalpy of oxygen and water? [closed]

What I am actually interested in is making a fluid that can oxygenate humans through the skin to couteract ischaemia like gangrene and covid. So if the question has to be narrowed down it means ...

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