Questions tagged [acid-base]

This tag should be applied to questions concerning acid and base reactions. An acid is capable of donating a hydron/ proton (Brønsted acid) or capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (Lewis acid). A base on the other hand is a chemical species/ molecular entity having an available pair of electrons capable of forming a covalent bond with a hydron/ proton (Brønsted base) or with the vacant orbital of some other species (Lewis base).

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Can someone please explain buffers to me?

This is what I understand so far: The concept of a buffer is to minimize any swings in pH. In order to do this you need to create a solution with both acidic and basic compounds. To create one, you ...
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Are there any amphoteric substances other than water and ammonia?

I have read about the Brønsted-Lowry and Arrhenius concepts to define a substance as an acid or a base. Our teacher told us that there are substances which behave both as an acid and a base, using ...
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Why does polonium form acidic oxides?

All metals form basic oxides. Metallic oxides are basic in character. Polonium is a metal, so it should form basic oxides but it forms acidic oxides. Why are its oxides acidic in character?
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How does H2SO4 dissociate?

Apologies for this extremely basic question, I'm just beginning with Chemistry so please don't be too harsh on me. My book says that sulfuric acid, $\ce{H2SO4}$, dissociates in its ions following ...
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Why does gaseous HCl not change dry blue litmus paper to red?

I am doing a practical in lab, in which HCl is to be evolved. I found that when blue litmus is near the evolved gas, it doesn't turn red. But, when litmus is dipped in water and then brought near the ...
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How are these compounds strong bases, when they are sparingly soluble in water?

How is it possible that some insoluble compounds in water, e.g. $\ce{Mg(OH)2}$, $\ce{Ca(OH)2}$, $\ce{Sr(OH)2}$ are considered strong bases? Are they even strong bases? How can I tell if a compound is ...
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Why do strong acids have weak conjugate bases?

This question is based on the Brønsted-Lowry model. I saw many answers to similar questions online. However none of them have given a detailed answer that is based on molecular structure (the answers ...
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Is it correct to say that H2SO4 is an acid in this reaction?

Is it correct to say that $\ce{H2SO_4}$ acts as an acid in the following reaction? $\ce{2Ag + H2SO_4} \rightarrow \ce{Ag_2SO_4 + 2H_2O + SO_2}$ I know it acts as an oxidizing agent, but is it ...
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Reaction of Iron(III) with hydroxide ion

The observations: 1) Treatment of 1 mL of 0.05 M $\ce{Fe(NH4)SO4}$ solution with excess 1 M $\ce{NaOH}$ results in the formation of a rust-colored red-brown iron-based solution with many suspended ...
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Why should 2,6-Dimethyl-4-nitrophenol be more acidic than 3,5-Dimethyl-4-nitrophenol

I was trying to compare acidity of some organic compounds but can't understand some: Why should 2,6-dimethyl-4-nitrophenol be more acidic than 3,5-dimethyl-4-nitrophenol? I have been trying to ...
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Amount of Phenolphthalein required

We just had chemistry practical few days a go. The topic was strong acid-base titration, in which we had to find the normality and concentration of $\ce{HCl}$. My teacher instructed me to add 2 drops ...
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t-BuOK as a base

I thought $\ce{KOtBu}$ was used to form the less substituted alkene. Why is that not the case here?
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pKa values for protonated nitrogens in ketoconazole

Everywhere on the internet I see that the two $\mathrm pK_\mathrm a$'s of ketoconazole are 6.4 and 2.3, but I don't think that is correct. The $\mathrm pK_\mathrm a$ of imidazole is around 6.4 . ...
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Is the Henderson–Hasselbalch equation volume independent?

Looking at this equation $\mathrm{pH} = \mathrm{p}K_\text{a} +\log\frac{[\ce{CB}]}{[\ce{A}]}$ makes me think that it is concentration independent. What I mean is, when we look at $\frac{[\ce{CB}]}{[\...
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To add acid or base to water

There is a rule stating that we shall add a strong acid to water, and not the other way because of safety; if we would add water to the acid, the reaction could be dangerous (boil). What about adding ...
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Will cinnamaldehyde undergo self-aldol condensation?

Will cinnamaldehyde undergo self-aldol condensation? My book says it won't, but since it has an α-hydrogen, I'm confused.
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Why is glycine hydrochloride more acidic than chloroacetic acid?

I cannot figure out why glycine hydrochloride is more acidic than chloroacetic acid. Could I have figured this out from a $\mathrm pK_\mathrm a$ table and maybe am just not seeing it? On the table I ...
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How can I determine the pH of solution?

Could anyone tell me how I would go about calculating the pH of 100.0 mL of 0.100 M $\ce{H2NNH2}$ ($K_\text{b} = 3.0 \times 10^{-6}$). Furthermore, how would this pH change when 20.0 mL of 0.200 M $\...
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What is the most acidic neutral hydrocarbon?

This is a question I've been thinking about quite frequently. I had seen that this hydrocarbon has a low $\mathrm pK_\mathrm a$ with reference to the highlighted H-atom Loss of the central gives ...
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Is steric inhibition of resonance or steric inhibition of protonation dominant in o-toluidine?

I wish to know which effect out of steric inhibition of resonance (SIR) or steric inhibition of protonation (SIP) is dominant over the other when comparing basicities of o-toluidine and aniline: ...
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Why don't Gringard Reagents react with carbonyls at the alpha position? [duplicate]

According to many texts, the reason why Gringard reagents cannot be used with alcohols is because the Gringard reagent is a strong base, which would deprotonate the alcohol. ($p\pu{K}_b$ of Gringard $\...
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Is the conjugate base of pyrrole resonance stabilised?

This is something I am conceptually struggling with, if I deprotonate pyrrole on the nitrogen in the ring, is it true that the conjugate base is not resonance stabilised, because the orbital is ...
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Does dilution of a buffer affect pH?

The Henderson-Hasselbalch equation for the $\mathrm{pH}$ of a buffer solution of the monoprotic acid $\ce{HA}$ is given by $$\mathrm{pH}=\mathrm pK_\mathrm a+\log{\frac{[\ce{A-}]}{[\ce{HA}]}}$$ Since ...
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Comparing the Lewis acidity of carbon tetrafluoride and silicon tetrafluoride

I've been asked to compare the relative acidity of $\ce{CF4}$ and $\ce{SiF4}$. As both atoms have noble gas configurations, neither can act as a lewis acid and so I assume the question is inferring ...
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Is there a difference in the reactions of a dilute acid and a concentrated acid?

All of the exams that I've sat so far, and the homework questions I've had, always ask for the reaction between a substance and a dilute acid. Is there a difference in the reaction between a dilute ...
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560 views

Buffer Power of the amphiprotic substance

The mass balance for a generic amphiprotic substance $[\ce{AH^-}]$ this: $$ [\ce{HA^-}]=C \cdot \dfrac{K_{a1} [\ce{H_3O^+}]}{K_{a1}\cdot [\ce{H_3O^+}] + [\ce{H_3O^+}]^2 + K_{a1} \cdot K_{a2}} \quad ...
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How to derive the conductivity titration curve which accounts for salt formation

I derived an equation that gave me the volume of base required to get a certain $\mathrm{pH}$: In a titration between a weak acid $\ce{HA}$ and weak base $\ce{B}$ (adding base into acid solution) the ...
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Which will be the most acidic hydrogen in the following organic compounds?

Which will be the most acidic hydrogen in both cases? Please explain. According to me, in the first compound 2 should be most acidic as in both 1 and 2, resonance occurs but 2’s carbon is closer to ...
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803 views

How is the trend of acidity in the sequence: phosphinic, phosphonic, phosphoric acid explained?

How is the trend of increasing $\mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a}(1)$ value in the sequence: phosphinic $(1.24)$, phosphonic $(2.00)$, phosphoric acid $(2.21)$ explained (the image was taken from Housecroft ...
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Sodium carbonate titration in presence of phenolphthalein

Why phenolphthalein cannot show the endpoint for the complete titration of Na2CO3 with only phenolphthalein? What's the reason that we consider only half of the moles of sodium carbonate when ...
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Why is o-toluic acid (2-methylbenzoic acid) more acidic than benzoic acid? [duplicate]

Why does the methyl group at the ortho-position stabilize the carboxylate ion? I recognize that there will be a steric clash between the carboxyl group and the methyl group but I don't understand why ...
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How does sodium bicarbonate act as a deodorizing agent?

I was reading this other question on the site: Deodorizing using baking powder instead of baking soda. Apparently, baking soda is used quite often as a cleaning and deodorizing agent. From what I ...
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Formation of zwitterion from amino acids

Why it is easier for the carbonyl group to lose a proton to become negatively charged and the amino group to accept a proton to become positively charged? I know it has to do with the very polar bond ...
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Mechanism for acid-catalyzed dehydration of 2,3-dimethylcyclopentanol

How do you get from 2,3-dimethylcyclopentanol to 1,2-dimethylcyclopent-1-ene? I know the -OH group leaves as water (being protonated by acid) forming a carbocation. Then the weak nucleophile (water) ...
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Carbon and dilute sulfuric acid

I have to distinguish between copper oxide and carbon. I thought of dilute sulfuric acid because it forms copper sulfate with copper oxide. But I don't know how carbon reacts with dilute sulfuric acid....
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Adjusting PBS with HCl: pH drift after dilution of phosphate buffer

It is some kind of everyday lab science and with a feel of shame I cannot answer this observation. I noticed a pH drift (~0.5 units) of my 10X phosphate buffer (PBS), when I adjust the pH with $\ce{...
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If the pH is zero, what would be the normality of a sulphuric acid solution?

If pH of the solution is zero, what would be the normality of $250 \, \mathrm{ml}$ $\ce{H2SO4}$ solution? My work: $\mathrm{pH} = 0$, hence the concentration of $\ce{H+}$ ions is $\pu{1 mol L^-1}$, ...
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Selective etchant for Al2O3 (Does not etch Al, Cu, Zn, Sn)

I'm looking for a wet-etchant to remove aluminum oxide created by anodizing, but not etch the unoxidized metal (with greater than 10:1 selectivity) I know about chromium(IV) oxide and fluorine-based ...
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Colour change of fluorescein in acidic and basic medium

I prepared fluorescein for my chemistry project in school and I realised that this molecule and its preparation steps are very closely related to that of phenolphthalein. I have studied briefly about ...
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How to calculate the pH of a 0.325 M solution of pyridine hydrofloride?

How to calculate the $\mathrm{pH}$ of a $0.325~\mathrm{M}$ solution of $\ce{C5H5NHF}$? The $K_\mathrm{b}$ for $\ce{C5H5N}$ and $\ce{C5H5NH+}$ is $1.7\times 10^{-9}$. Here's my work, but it's wrong (...
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Exceptionally weak basicity of pyridine [duplicate]

It is often explained that the relatively lower basicity of pyridine, relative to most amines, is due to the fact that the $\ce {N}$ lone pair resides in an $\ce {sp^2}$ hybridised orbital, instead of ...
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Does phosphoric acid remove stainless steel electropolished layer?

Electropolished stainless steel has a high corrosion resistance due to the oxide film that is created during electropolishing. The film mainly consist of chromium(III) oxide. Phosphoric acid is ...
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Why does potassium react the most vigorously with water?

Link to exam Which metal reacts most vigorously with water? (A) Ca (B) K (C) Mg (D) Na The given answer is B and the reasoning is that is is the most electropositive since it the furthest ...
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How to calculate the concentration H3O+ in a solution with pH=6.99?

What is the correct way to calculate the concentration $\ce{H3O+}$ in a solution with $\ce{pH}=6.99$? Attempt 1. pH<7, therefore there are only $\ce{H3O+}$ particles in the solution. $[\ce{H3O+...
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Can any compound be a Lewis acid but not be a Brønsted acid?

Is it possible for a compound to act as a Lewis acid but NOT act as a Brønsted acid? When would this happen? Could you please give a few examples where/why this happens ?
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pH of aqueous solution of HCl of low concentration [duplicate]

What is the pH of $10^{-8}~\mathrm{M}$ $\ce{HCl}$ solution in water? My attempt: pH = $-\log(10)^{-8}$ = 8 But this is wrong because it should be acidic. Where have I gone wrong?
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Does H3O+ donate a H+ to Water?

Does the hydronium ion donate a proton to water? If the collision of 2 molecules of water can cause a proton to be transferred, does hydronium 'pass' a proton to water?
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Which definition of Acids and Bases conforms to the pH scale?

It's all in the title. Is it the Arrhenius or the Brønsted-Lowry definition? Or is it some other definition? Also, our teacher told us that $pH$ stands for "Power of Hydrogen", but some sources say ...
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Is magnesium sulfate basic, neutral or acidic?

A question in my college test was whether $\ce{MgSO4}$ is neutral, acidic or basic. I was told to solve this kind of problem by hydrolyzing any ions that do not "come from" a strong acid or a strong ...
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Adding lemon to lentils changes color from black to pink, why?

I noticed that when I cook black lentils and add lemon juice to the water that's left, the water turns from black to pink! What can be the reason for that?

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