Questions tagged [acid-base]

This tag should be applied to questions concerning acid and base reactions. An acid is capable of donating a hydron/ proton (Brønsted acid) or capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (Lewis acid). A base on the other hand is a chemical species/ molecular entity having an available pair of electrons capable of forming a covalent bond with a hydron/ proton (Brønsted base) or with the vacant orbital of some other species (Lewis base).

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What is the significance of charge balancing when analysing system speciation (carbonate system given as an example)?

Following on from my previous question and accepted answer, How do I quantify the carbonate system and its pH speciation?, I also calculated a charge balance ($CB$) on the system where $z$ is the ...
Hendrix13's user avatar
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Why does the pH of very strong NaOH solutions not make sense? [duplicate]

I'm wondering why the pH of extreme alkaline solutions, such as the case with $\pu{10 M}$ $\ce{NaOH}$ does not make practical sense and I'm wondering why this is the case? Refer to my calculations ...
Hendrix13's user avatar
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2 answers
318 views

Can ions be acids or bases?

Consider a sulfate ion, its considered a weak base. Yet I thought bases and acids were compounds meaning they were always electrically neutral? Why is a sulfate ion then considered a base? And how ...
Howard Stark's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
712 views

A method to create NH3-NH4Cl buffer solution using titration method

My aim is to create a basic buffer solution. I know that to create a basic buffer solution, we need a strong acid and weak base. In my case I have chosen $\ce{NH3}$ and $\ce{NH4Cl}$. Using titration, ...
Partth Kulkarni's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
46 views

Would an effervescent tablet react with itself if ground into a nanopowder?

Effervescent tablets usually are a mixture of a weak acid, base, and binder. When dry there is no reaction. But when placed in water the acid-base neutralization releases CO2 rapidly. If you ground a (...
Kevin Kostlan's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
222 views

Dissolving Pyrite with HCl: Will dissolving KNO3 in HCl give it a similar oxidizing effect to HNO3?

I'm trying to dissolve small pyrite (FeS2) grains. It's supposed to be done in nitric acid, but my lab doesn't have any. It does have a lot of 37% HCl and various salt oxidizers, such as KNO3, KMnO4, ...
Mitch Connor's user avatar
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0 answers
129 views

Why is the pH of this ammonia solution more acidic than another ammonia solution?

I made two similar ammonia solutions in different ways, and they resulted in different pH, but i'm not sure why. Solution 1 Added 5.84 g NaCl to a 500 mL flask. Then added 10 mL 25% ammonia solution. ...
ammonia_help's user avatar
7 votes
2 answers
928 views

Mechanism of the blue bottle experiment

I have researched multiple mechanisms for this experiment yet all of them suggest different versions or are too vague. None of them are consistent since the final overall equation seems to be missing ...
Saeed Khoory's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
67 views

Difference between change of enthalpy of neutralization between copper and manganese carbonate

I was doing a calorimetry experiment to calculate the change in enthalpy during neutralization reactions between metal carbonates and hydrochloric acid. I experimented with 5 metal carbonates: ...
Gangjoon Ryan Lee's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
77 views

Why did neutralization of weak acid calculation differ from empirical results?

I recently stumbled upon the problem of needing to neutralize a volume of 0.33M acetic acid with 0.1M NaOH. I was curious how many mL of 0.1M NaOH I would need to bring 1mL of 0.33M Acetic Acid ...
user7264's user avatar
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Is hydrochloric acid or sulfuric acid more corrosive to titanium?

Which acid is more corrosive to titanium at 20 to 30 °C and similar concentrations: hydrochloric acid $\ce{HCl}$ or sulfuric acid $\ce{H2SO4}$? I found some info on AZoMaterials — Titanium - Corrosion ...
Cagdas Ozgenc's user avatar
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comparing basic strength of toluidine isomers [duplicate]

I would like to compare the basicity of ortho and para isomers of toluidine.After comparing the pKb values online the order of basic strength is: p—toluidine> m—toluidine> aniline> o—...
TeslaBolt's user avatar
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What drives double displacement reactions?

I have two questions: I understand that in a displacement reaction the more reactive element displace the less reactive element. But why? In the reaction with Zinc and Copper Sulfate, we form Copper ...
Quin Gardiner Bax's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
162 views

Question about aluminium and complex ion formation in water vs in acid

My textbook states, that aluminium reacts with water after dissolving the outer layer with HgCl2, and forms Al(OH)3, an insoluble compound: 2Al + 6H2O = 2 AI(OH)3 + 3H2 In non-oxidizing acids, it ...
ernogal's user avatar
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Does the nature of the H-A bond tell us about the $\Delta$G of an acid's dissociation?

When I first learned about acid strength trends in general chemistry, I remember it was explained in terms of the character of the H-A bond. The more polar the H-A bond, the easier it was to ...
Akash's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
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How do I quantify the carbonate system and its pH speciation?

I did Environmental Water Chemistry as part of my undergraduate course where we quantified pH-speciation for the full carbonate system and I got it right according to my tutor. My speciation profile ...
Hendrix13's user avatar
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1 answer
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Why acidity of hydrogen hallide increase down the group 17 [duplicate]

I just wandering when going down group 17 the electronegativity decreases, and acidity increase with an increase in electronegativity. Then theoritically it should have decrease its acidity of ...
Pck Tsp's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
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How specific is the exception of negative charge location (orbital vs atom) for determining stability of conjugate base?

Chapter 3 Acid-base reactions in Klein's Organic Chemistry As a Second Language explains an exception to the typical order of important factors for determining how stable a negative charge on a ...
TNF's user avatar
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0 answers
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Why are nitriles less basic than amides?

Like nitriles have a localised lone pair which amides do not have, as their lone pair is delocalised and still amides are more basic. Why? I could not find any satisfactory explanation so please ...
Tasmay Tibrewal's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
332 views

How to establish trend of carboxylic acid acidity in the presence of certain substituents?

I encountered a question in my textbook which asked the following: At first, i thought that i can approach it in the same way i sort the effect of EDG and EWG on the acidity of phenols, that is, ...
Doe Pual's user avatar
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3 votes
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What is the pKa value of the nitrogen atoms, specifically the amine groups?

How would you estimate the $\mathrm pK_\mathrm a$ values of the nitrogen atoms in 1,4-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoxaline? I struggle with it because I am unsure whether to classify them as ...
Laura's user avatar
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-5 votes
1 answer
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Hydrofluoric acid

At work we have a large tank that is comprised mostly of hydrofluoric acid, I don't know the dilution factor as I'm not the one making the bath, but I have a question, when emptying the bath we tried ...
Alex's user avatar
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Why do amphiprotic substances react to completion in acidic and basic conditions?

I was under the impression that amphiprotic substances were usually weak acids/bases. If this is the case, how could their reactions go to completion in more acidic/basic environments? e.g. my ...
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1 answer
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intramolecular h-bonding in maleic acid

While studying organic chemistry, I came across two practice questions given by my professor: Compare the acidic strength of:- Maleic acid and Fumaric acid o-nitrophenol and p-nitro phenol And the ...
Priyanshu Choubey's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
294 views

Conductometric titration curve plotting

In the conductometric titation of HCl vs NaOH, the conductance initially decreases, reaches a minimum at equivalence point, and then the slope of the curve becomes positive: Source: https://chart-...
Shub's user avatar
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Quantity vs quality in determining acidic strength

Consider the following order of acidity based on pKa values:- ethanoic acid > phthalimide >phenol >water >acetamide Looking towards similar questions on stack exchange such as this , the ...
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Why are amides weaker acids than water?

Based on a a recent question I asked on ChemSE, the answer to my question was that amides are weaker acids than water with a typical pKa value of ~20. Although, this answers my question, it got me ...
user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
64 views

Why doesn't an acid-base reaction occur in basic amide hydrolysis instead of nucleophilic acyl substitution?

In the reaction of Grignard reagent with a primary and secondary amide, nucleophilic acyl substiution doesn't happen. The reason given is that R- is a strong base as well as strong nucleophile, an ...
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-3 votes
1 answer
73 views

pH calculation of a mixure containing 2 strong acids and a buffer mixture

Calculate the pH of a mixtureof 10 mL 0,1 M HCl ; 5 mL 0,1 M HNO3 ; 10 mL 0,2 M HAc ; 15 mL 0,4 M NaAc. My understanding was that I have to find the [H+] by: finding the concentration of the products ...
Jessica's user avatar
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1 vote
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Notation for acid-base reactions of differing strengths - equilibrium?

I'm having trouble finding anything meaningful in textbooks or searches. My question is what is the correct notation for writing acid-base reactions when their strengths are varying? I know that ...
tgsweat's user avatar
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0 answers
110 views

Why is CaO a lewis base

We know that $\ce{CaO}$ is a base. But when I wanted to know which theory proves this fact, I got to know that Lewis theory explains this through a reaction with $\ce{SO_3}$. But the definition of ...
aquaman's user avatar
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5 votes
2 answers
1k views

What is Dornic acidity and how to measure it?

Context: I work with dairy product (cheese making) and in order to improve the quality of my process, I have documentation (in French) which refers to Dornic acidity over time. This graph represents ...
neydroydrec's user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
273 views

What is the number of acidic hydrogens and the n-factor of hypophosphorous acid?

My teacher said that the hydrogen which is directly linked with oxygen or more electronegative atom is an acidic hydrogen, and that the $n$-factor for an acid is the number of acidic hydrogens. Then ...
Nipun Kulshreshtha's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
52 views

Do azaindoles primarily exist in anionic form at physiological pH and act as bases?

I am reading an article where they describe azaindoles (bicyclic pyridine/pyrrole rings) as being basic with $\mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a} \approx 4.6.$ I suppose at physiological $\mathrm{pH}$ and after ...
Luke McAloon's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
88 views

Are there any types of adhesive which are designed to be easily soluble in strong acid (HCl with pH 1-4)?

I am a mechanical engineer so forgive my ignorance in chemistry. I know there are water soluble adhesives like polyvinyl alcohol but I am wondering if there are glues which easily dissolve in low pH ...
user124132's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
354 views

Why is PCl3 acidic? [closed]

Why is it that when adding PCl3 into distilled water, the solution becomes acidic? What exactly is the reaction occurring? Must it not be neutral as the PCl3 is molecular, or then P has a lone pair of ...
jack Morgan's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
355 views

How useful is thymol blue (acid) as an indicator?

The pH range of thymol blue (acid) is 1.2-2.8.. This pH range seems pretty useless. Generally, the sudden change in pH for SA-SB titration occurs in the range of 4-10; the sudden change in pH for SA-...
tryingtobeastoic's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
120 views

Should I write formula for oxalate or oxalic acid while balancing a redox reaction using the ion-electron method?

Problem: Balance the following reaction using the ion-electron method: $$\ce{H2C2O4 + KMnO4 + H2SO4 -> CO2 + MnSO4 + K2SO4 + H2O}$$ My book's solution: Oxidation half-reaction: $$\ce{C2O4^2- -> ...
tryingtobeastoic's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
62 views

How to find pH for acetate buffer?

Calculate the pH of the solution that results when $\pu{40.0 mL}$ of $\pu{0.100 M}$ $\ce{CH3COOH}$ is mixed with $\pu{30.0 mL}$ of $\pu{0.200 M}$ $\ce{NaCH3COO}.$ $K_\mathrm{a}(\ce{CH3COOH}) = \pu{1....
Nori's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
310 views

Etching polished marble?

My wife's cousin owns a marble company, so when they told us we could have free cutoff pieces, we thought it could make a cool patio. Problem is, they're SUPER slippery. Someone suggested pouring acid ...
Kevin Dedes's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
56 views

Balanced reaction to Cr given H+ [closed]

The troublesome nature of this post, is that I was given very little information to work with: "The metal chromium (Cr) reacts with an acid, to create Cr^+3 ions, and hydrogen gas. Show the ...
dogman's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
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Can oxygen atoms be regarded as a Lewis acid?

Although both oxidants and Lewis acids can steal electrons, they work in different ways. Oxidants acquire electrons via ionic bonds or polar covalent bonds, while Lewis acids form dative bonds with ...
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Does the solvent used affect basic strength?

In this question, it is explained how basicity and nucleophilicity are different and how the solvent used affects nuclephilicity. What I wondered was whether there would be a difference in the basic ...
Anili's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
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How does CO2 'dissolve' in water (or blood)?

I'm trying to understand CO2 dissolved in blood, carbonic acid and the bicarbonate ion. I think of 'dissolving' as in NaCl dissociating into Na+ and Cl- ions sloshing around in water. CO2 isn't ...
Ribo's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
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How much Calcium Hydroxide to manufacture calcium formate?

First, I have no experience with stoichiometry. I currently manufacture calcium formate for a specific use because here in my country, it is very difficult to get calcium formate in small quantities. ...
Andre Trollip's user avatar
5 votes
0 answers
92 views

What is the pKa of the O-17 hydronium ion?

At low concentrations of a conjugate acid/base pair in aqueous solutions, the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation gives a good approximation of the ratio of acid and base: $$ \frac{[\ce{A-}]}{[\ce{AH}]} = ...
Karsten's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
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Can I use baking soda to precipitate soluble copper out of a citric acid bath into a non-soluble form for disposal

I may be at the wrong forum with such a basic question but trying to ferret out the answer on Google has not been productive. Apologies in advance. I do art metal, working almost exclusively in ...
LFBrown's user avatar
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-2 votes
2 answers
148 views

Can chloride donate an electron pair to silver(I)?

According to the Lewis dot structure of $\ce{Cl-}$, $\ce{Cl-}$ has octet fulfilled and should be able to donate a pair of electrons as it is a Lewis base. The Lewis dot structure of $\ce{Ag+}$ seems ...
user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
381 views

How to make a paste out of vinegar?

I am trying to make a smooth vinegar cream for short term use of up to about 3 months (i.e. no preservatives are needed if stored in a cool place). Vinegars such as apple cider vinegar or pure acetic ...
user9303970's user avatar
-1 votes
2 answers
247 views

Why did anyone invent the concepts of acids and bases? [closed]

I am home-schooling my son in first-year Chemistry, and I am struggling to teach Acids and Bases in a rewarding way. I am not new to Chemistry. I went to grad school in Physics and I even taught High ...
nineytoon's user avatar

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