Questions tagged [acid-base]

This tag should be applied to questions concerning acid and base reactions. An acid is capable of donating a hydron/ proton (Brønsted acid) or capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (Lewis acid). A base on the other hand is a chemical species/ molecular entity having an available pair of electrons capable of forming a covalent bond with a hydron/ proton (Brønsted base) or with the vacant orbital of some other species (Lewis base).

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1answer
651 views

why are amines more water soluble than alcohol for similiar molecular weight?

kindly someone please explain the reason behind this behaviour despite the fact that oxygen is more electronegative and forms stronger hydrogen bond.
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1answer
803 views

Acidity of ester and benzoic acid

Can the oxygen in an ester participate in resonance donation? I think so, although the donation is slight. The hybridization is correct. However, resonance withdrawal by the ring via the oxygen doesn'...
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1answer
4k views

Soap versus Shampoo

Soap and shampoo are both cleaning agents in our daily life. Why is soap in solid form and shampoo is in a liquid form, though? Is it because of the chemical components inside them or another factor?...
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1answer
217 views

What is the formula for theoretical buffer capacity for a diprotic buffer system?

According to Chembuddy, the formula for theoretical buffer capacity for a monoprotic buffer system is as follows: $$β = 2.303\left(\frac{K_\mathrm{w}}{[\ce{H+}]} + [\ce{H+}] + \frac{C_\mathrm{buf}...
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2answers
7k views

Why is sodium sulfate a neutral salt [duplicate]

When I have a solution of $\ce{Na2SO4}$, the sodium sulfate should ionize: $$\ce{Na2SO4(aq) -> 2Na+(aq) + SO4^{2-}(aq)}$$ In my mind, the sodium ions should just float around, but because $\ce{...
2
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1answer
430 views

Does the addition of base to 3-pentanone give the cis or trans enolate?

I've spent several hours searching the WWW with entries like "stereoselective enolate formation" and similar ones, but I find almost only entries for Li-amide bases (LDA, LMTP) and no other bases like ...
2
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1answer
7k views

Is acetate a weak base due to its resonance structure?

I just read that acetic acid is an exception to the general idea that the conjugate base to a weak acid is a strong base. The example says that the conjugate base of a weak acid will only be strong ...
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1answer
1k views

In which direction does imidazole affect the pH?

I'm reading something about nickel affinity chromatography and it talks about using imidazole to affect pH. In which direction does it change the pH?
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1answer
46 views

Is atom-clean aluminum active enough to react with alkali salts?

Thermally evaportated $\ce{Al}$ under high vacuum is free of oxidized species and highly active. But is it active enough to even substitute the alkali cationic metal in alkali salts, like $\ce{LiOH, ...
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1answer
3k views

Is this reaction with H+ and OH− a possible reaction?

I am wondering about the reaction $\ce{H+ + O^2- -> OH-}$. Is it possible? I think this is not a possible reaction, because here a strong acid plus another particle reacts to a strong base. If it ...
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2answers
2k views

Under which criteria HNO3 is a concentrated or a diluted acid? [closed]

I would like to buy nitric acid to remove impurities of copper on an aluminum plate. I read that a 10% nitric acid will do the job. However I've also read that concentrated nitric acid is very ...
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0answers
84 views

Primitive Technology - Production of NaOH

We need to produce NaOH with primitive Technology. This is Part 1 of my Gilligan's Island Challenge series (Part 2). You are stuck on an island with access to a beach, a forest, a river, a lake, and a ...
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2answers
2k views

What is the reason for strong acids/bases dissociating in water?

I have read that the actual definition of a strong acid is one which will fully dissociate in water, so please do not turn the problem on its head when answering. It is also my understanding that ...
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1answer
845 views

Are hydrogen atoms in acetone molecule acidic?

My chemistry book says that acetone is aprotic, but I think that, since the conjugate base of acetone has possible resonating structures, the hydrogen atom must be free to move out as $\ce{H+}$ (as ...
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1answer
639 views

How do the strong acids dissociate?

In writing net ionic equations involving strong acids, one needs to know how strong acids dissociate. For example, the dissociation of $\ce{H2SO4}$: \begin{align}\ce{ H2SO4 &-> 2H+ + SO4^{2-}\\...
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1answer
77 views

Do polyfluorosulfuric acids like H2SO2F4 exist?

I was thinking about a compound resembling $\ce{H2SO4}$ but more acidic. I thought to replace the 2 oxygens with 4 fluorine atoms getting $\ce{H2SO2F4}$, which might be more acidic. Does such a ...
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2answers
119 views

Deprotonated form of phenolphthalein

The wikipedia page states clearly that the coloured form of phenolphthalein is the one with two protons removed. What is the evidence that phenolphthalein loses both protons in basic solution? And ...
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2answers
2k views

Finding pH after dilution?

Assume that $\ce{pKa}$ is 4.76 Mix $\pu{50 mL}$ of $\pu{0.1M}$ $\ce{HA}$ and $\pu{50 mL}$ $\pu{0.1M}$ $\ce{NaA}$. This is solution (i). Calculate concentrations of $\ce{HA}$ and $\ce{A-}$, ...
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0answers
59 views

Why isn't the ion-product constant the sum of the molar concentrations of H+ and OH-? [duplicate]

The Chemistry texts I have present the ion-product constant as: $$K_\mathrm w= 1.0 \times 10^{-14} = [\ce{H+}][\ce{OH-}]$$ Additionally I'm told that this constant at (25 °C) is an equilibrium. As ...
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1answer
251 views

Equivalence point vs inflection point in the titration curve of a weak acid

Let's suppose we want to titrate a solution containing an unknown monoprotic and weak acid. We use a strong base, such as $\ce{NaOH}$. When the number (and moles) of hydroxide ions coming directly ...
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1answer
3k views

Do acids without hydrogen taste sour?

I have heard that acids taste sour because of hydrogen (I don't really know exactly). According to the definition of acids: An acid (from the Latin acidus/acēre meaning sour) is a chemical ...
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2answers
742 views

Solid salts of hydronium ion

Are there any solids with hydronium ion in its crystal structure? If so, what are they? If not, why not? I understand there are hydroxide-containing solids and gels such as aluminium hydroxide but ...
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1answer
134 views

pH of very dilute acids

From doing some research on the site I have found that many people have posted about solutions of $\ce{HCl}$ where $[\ce{HCl}] = \pu{1e-8 mol dm-3}$ Here they are able to deduce $$[\ce{H+}] = \frac{[...
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1answer
6k views

Why is Aluminium Chloride a Lewis Acid if it's an ionic compound?

In my textbook it says in the reaction $\ce{AlCl3 + Cl- -> AlCl4-}$, Aluminium Chloride ($\ce{AlCl3}$) has six valence electrons and accepts a lone pair from $\ce{Cl-}$, but wouldn't that mean the ...
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2answers
17k views

Using Le Chatelier's Principle to explain why percent dissociation of acids/bases increase with dilution

$$\ce{HA(aq) +H2O(l) <=>H3O+(aq) +A- (aq)}$$ Say the acid solution is currently in equilibrium. How would diluting the acid by adding water change the equilibrium position? Le Chatelier's ...
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1answer
3k views

Why is LiOH a weaker base than NaOH [closed]

Why do LiOH is weak base as compared to NaOH even though it's hydration enthalpy is greater than Na?
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2answers
221 views

Concentration of a species outside buffer region (polyprotic acid titration)

I'm wondering if you titrate a polyprotic acid, say, $\ce{H3PO4}$, with a strong base, and you successfully pass the first equivalence point and are maybe at the $\mathrm{pH}=\mathrm{pK}_{a2}$ point ...
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2answers
1k views

Which base is stronger methylamine or propylamine?

Which base is stronger methylamine or propylamine? I know that it depends on the strength of inductive effect of alkyl group. Am I right? But how can I determine the difference between methyl and ...
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1answer
544 views

How to determine if a reaction proceeds via SN1, SN2, E1 or E2 mechanism?

Give the main product and reaction type: SN1, SN2, E1 , E2. As the 1-bromohexane is primary and the nucleophile a strong unhindered base, the reaction should be a SN2 reaction. However, the solvent $...
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4answers
30k views

The Reaction Between Nickel and Hydrochloric Acid

Having conducted an investigation involving multiple metals, I have found that nickel refuses to react with concentrated hydrochloric acid. I have even left the reaction overnight and still have seen ...
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0answers
942 views

Why does copper(II) sulfate react with ammonia?

We've done preparation of Tetraamminecopper(II) sulphate $\ce{[Cu(NH_3)_4(H_2O)_n]SO_4}$ using copper sulphate and 50% ammonia solution. Initially, a pale blue color of $\ce{Cu(OH)_2}$ appeared with ...
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1answer
54 views

How a titration curve is affected when a poorly soluble salt is formed?

Suppose that I have $\pu{100 mL}$ solution of strong acid, $\ce{HA}$, at $\pu{0.10 mol L^{-1}}$. This solution is titrated with a strong base solution, $\ce{BOH}$, at $\pu{0.10 mol L^{-1}}$. Suppose ...
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0answers
795 views

Sodium percarbonate and sulfuric acid reaction

If an excess sulfuric acid is added to a detergent containing sodium percarbonate, would it be possible for the excess acid to react with hydrogen peroxide? I believe that the hydrogen peroxide will ...
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0answers
204 views

Can the effect of resonance on acidity be generalised?

A basic trend for acid: if the conjugate base is more stable, then the acid has a lower $\ce{pKa}$. Therefore, it would quite intuitive to think that resonance in the conjugate base will make the acid ...
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0answers
439 views

acids, bases, salts, etc

All the chemical compounds can be categorized as acids, bases, and neutral compounds. There are different theories, namely Arrhenius Theory, Brønsted-Lowry Theory, Lewis Theory, which define the ...
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3answers
3k views

Strong and weak acid

I know sulfuric acid is a strong acid and acetic acid is a weak acid. However when I write them in their chemical symbol. Sulfuric acid: $\ce{H2SO4}$ Acetic acid: $\ce{CH3COOH}$ I realise that ...
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1answer
28k views

What is the difference between the titration of a strong acid with a strong base and that of the titration of a weak acid with a strong base?

Which of the following statements best characterizes the difference between the titration of a strong acid with a strong base and that of the titration of a weak acid with a strong base? A) Both ...
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1answer
544 views

Reaction of nitro compounds with strong alkali?

Why does a primary and a secondary nitro compound behave as an acid in the presence of strong alkali whereas tertiary nitro compounds do not? Can anyone explain it with reactions?
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2answers
2k views

What will happen when a metal reacts with an acid which is neither dilute nor concentrated? [closed]

We have always studied about metals reacting with dilute and concentrated acids, but I do not understand what will happen if the same metal reacts with an acid that is neither concentrated nor dilute?
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2answers
2k views

Confused about strong/weak dibasic and tribasic acids

I know that sulfuric acid is considered a strong acid, and the dissociation of its first $\ce{H+}$ ion is complete and of its second $\ce{H+}$ ion is partial. Phosphoric acid is weak and all three of ...
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0answers
58 views

Highly concentrated NaOH solution at high temperature vs borosilicate glassware and cellulose?

I've read here on stack-exchange that NaOH will react with glass through the following reaction: 4 NaOH + SiO2 ⤑ Na4SiO4 + 2 H2O I would like to briefly heat a highly concentrated NaOH solution to ...
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3answers
84 views

Confusion on ion product of water

The ion product of water is defined as $$ K_w = [\ce{H+}][\ce{OH-}] $$ and in pure water $ [\ce{H+}] = [\ce{OH-}]= 1.0 \times 10^{-7}$ and $ K_w = 1.0 \times 10^{-14}$. It is said that if we dissolve ...
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1answer
889 views

Which white powders form acids when mixed with water?

I have a mystery acid which isn't citric, boric, or oxalic acid. When mixed with water, it smells pungent, like hydrochloric acid--though I haven't compared them side by side. Which other white ...
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2answers
3k views

Why is CrCl3 acidic?

Why is $\ce{CrCl3}$ acidic? I know that it has a high charge density given that it is a transition metal ion, and can hence polarize neighbouring water molecules, resulting in hydrolysis and formation ...
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1answer
6k views

How to calculate pH of the Na2CO3 solution given ambiguous Ka values

This is the exact question I faced on an exam. Calculate the pH of $\pu{0.05 M}\ \ce{Na2CO3}\ (\ce{H2CO3}: K_\mathrm{a,1}= 4\times 10^{-7},\ K_\mathrm{a,2}= 4.7\times 10^{-11})$ Solution $$\ce{...
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1answer
64 views

Confused on normallity

So normality is 'equivalents' over liters solution right? I'm having a hard time understanding exactly what an equivalent is. At first from one thing I read i thought it was just the H released from ...
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1answer
481 views

pH of a weak base calculation

Calculate the $\ce{pH}$ of a $100$ $\ce{mL}$ solution containing $0$$.0375$ moles of the weak base, Sodium Benzoate, $\ce{C6H5COONa}$. $$\ce{C6H5COO + H2O -> C6H6COO- + OH-}$$ $$\frac{0.0375 ~\...
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2answers
2k views

Lewis Acid / Base reaction for SO2 and H2O

I am having trouble with this question: Identify the Lewis acid and Lewis base in each of the following reactions: $\ce{SO2(g) + H2O(l) = H2SO3(aq)}$ What I tried: A Lewis acid is an electron pair ...
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2answers
13k views

Why is phosphorous acid more acidic than phosphoric acid?

Phosphoric acid has basicity of 3 i.e it can loose 3 $\ce{H+}$ while phosphorous acid has basicity of 2. Why is phosphorous acid more acidic than phosphoric acid? Acidity refers to the ability to ...
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1answer
699 views

Reaction between silver(I) hydroxide and an alkali [closed]

I've read about this in a booklet, but I can't find its stepwise reactions or its derivation: $$\ce{AgOH + NaOH -> Ag2O}$$ And how does a base ($\ce{AgOH}$) react with another base ($\ce{NaOH}$)? ...

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