Questions tagged [acid-base]

This tag should be applied to questions concerning acid and base reactions. An acid is capable of donating a hydron/ proton (Brønsted acid) or capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (Lewis acid). A base on the other hand is a chemical species/ molecular entity having an available pair of electrons capable of forming a covalent bond with a hydron/ proton (Brønsted base) or with the vacant orbital of some other species (Lewis base).

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46 views

Acidity of butyric acid vs. thiophenol

I am being asked to compare the acidities of various compounds for an assignment, but I am confused about why butyric acid is a stronger acid than thiophenol/benzenethiol. From what I was taught, I ...
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511 views

Why are lactate and lactic acid used synonymously in biochemistry?

In science there's always a misuse of the two terms. I know that lactate is the conjugate base of lactic acid. Why are they used like is the same thing? For exemple: in lactic acid bacteria (LAB) ...
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1answer
69 views

Why are alkali metal compounds like sodium hydride or sodium amide strong bases but weak nucleophiles?

I understand why compounds such as $\ce{NaH}$ or $\ce{NaNH2}$ are weak nucleophiles: as they aren't very soluble in organic solvents, they react only on the clusters' surface. But why are they strong ...
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How does the Hammett acidity function work and how to calculate it for [H2SO4] = 1,830? Any references?

I'm modelling the concentrations in the Belousov Zhabotinsky reaction. For this model, I need to convert [BrO3-] to [HBrO3]. I discovered in several papers that the following correlation applies: $$ [\...
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2answers
77 views

Can a weak acid react to give a stronger acid? [closed]

I was trying to understand why $\ce{AgCl}$ does not dissolve in $\ce{HNO3}$ and the reaction I could think of was something like this: $$\ce{AgCl + HNO3->AgNO3 + HCl}$$ I could not understand why ...
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2answers
119 views

How do dibromopyrazolones undergo base-promoted decomposition?

I was not sure but seeing the base as NaOH I used the fact that it will take most acidic hydrogen that is N-H and electron pair will come over it and it will resonate from two sides. I could make upto ...
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1answer
50 views

Effect of mixing acids on solubility

Please help me clarify the title if you come up with a better way to put it (you certainly will). My question is the following: If you make a mix of equal parts of various acids (Bicarbonate, ...
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1answer
83 views

Naming of perchloric acid

Why is perchloric acid called so? I am aware of the rules, but why is it not called hyperchloric acid? Or is it correct to also refer to perchloric acid as hyperchloric acid?
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Why HCl is used in Lucas test?

In Lucas test $\ce{HCl}$ is used for acid-base reaction between $\ce{Zn(OH)Cl}$ to give $\ce{ZnCl2}$ and $\ce{H2O}$ which is kind of good because $\ce{ZnCl2}$ is formed again and used in first step ...
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1answer
91 views

Comparing acidic strength of ortho and para hydroxybenzoic acid [duplicate]

In orthohydroxybenzoic acid intramolecular forces operate which I believe tend to lock the position thereby making acidic H not available for release whereas in parahydroxybenzoic acid there in no ...
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Reaction of borax with NaOH

How does borax react with NaOH? My textbook says that sodium peroxoborate is formed. I couldn't find the reaction anywhere else. Can anyone verify as well as explain it?
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Why is carbon monoxide a “weak” lewis base?

A lewis base is substance that donates an unshared pair of electron. In CO, a lone pair is present on both carbon and oxygen each. Moreover, lone pair of electron on carbon is localised so CO will ...
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Why is Aluminium oxide amphoteric?

I was reading my book, in which it mentioned that aluminium and gallium oxides are amphoteric and and indium and thalium oxide are basic in their properties. But no explanation was given. My main ...
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Acid boric preparation [closed]

Is there a simple reaction to yield boric acid ($\ce{H3BO3}$) from boron trifluoride ($\ce{BF3}$)?
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Reaction of phosphorous acid (H3PO3) and potassium hydroxide (KOH)

For the reaction of phosphorous acid ($\ce{H3PO3}$) and potassium hydroxide ($\ce{KOH}$), write (a) the balanced molecular equation and (b) the net ionic equation. Note that phosphorous acid is a ...
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The reason behind the steep rise in pH in the acid base titration curve

Most books refer to a steep rise in pH when a titration reaches the equivalence point. However, I do not understand why … I mean I am adding the same drops of acid to the alkali but just as I near the ...
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1answer
56 views

Will a salt dissociate completely in water to give free ions?

I was reading salt hydrolysis of a salt made from strong acid and weak base. I came across the hydrolysis of $\ce{NH_4Cl}$. These reactions were mentioned $$\ce{NH_4Cl + H_2O<=>NH_3 + HCl \tag{...
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1answer
50 views

Does the acid dissociation constant takes hydrogen ions from water into account?

For the dissociation of a weak acid: $$\ce{HA(aq)<=>H+ + A-}$$ To calculate $\mathrm{pH}$ of a weak acid, we use the expression: $$K_\mathrm{a}=\ce{\frac{[H+] [A-]}{HA}}$$ The $\ce{[H+]}$ has ...
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0answers
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comparision between basic nature of CH3O- and -OH

when comparing the basic nature of $CH_3O^-$ and that of $OH^-$. I found two arguments. one favoring the more basic nature of $CH_3O^-$ and the other favoring the basic nature of $OH^-$. so which of ...
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1answer
82 views

Modelling pH as function of time and position

I already posted this on the Engineering Stack Exchange under Chemical Engineering as I don't know where it's a better fit. I have a system whose initial state consists of three different sections ...
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1answer
27 views

How Is This Acid Base Map Established?

In the Acid-base map -shown below- each line denoted as an isohydric line shows the pairs of $ PCO_{2}$ & $ [HCO_{3}^{-}] $ that give a certain $ pH $. So each line connects the values of $ PCO_{2}...
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What makes concentrated aqueous solutions of aluminium nitrate and aluminium chloride suitable to dissolve noble metals, specifically gold? [closed]

Aluminium nitrate is a strong oxidising agent and aluminium chloride acts as a Lewis acid. Also these solutions are claimed to have the abilities of aqua regia and therefore can dissolve noble metals. ...
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64 views

Is it OK to dispose of potassium hydrogen phthalate into the sewer system?

I have been using potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP) for creating primary standards. I have looked into the Flinn catalog, and the disposal consideration is classified as "organic acids, must be ...
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2answers
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Are burns from Lye or Potash that bad?

I read that the chemicals potassium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide are extremely corrosive and will cause severe burns but I also see videos of people saying that if you get lye on you, then just wash ...
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How concentrated does sulfuric acid need to be for nitric acid synthesis (H2SO4 + nitrate salt distillation)?

So I have a home lab setup and recently found myself in need of some nitric acid. I could just buy some, but I thought it would be a useful exercise to make my own. I have plenty of nitrate salts ...
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2answers
70 views

Unusual Titration Curve Explanation

From Costanzo's Physiology book in Acid-Base Physiology chapter, this titration curve of a weak acid ($\ce{HA}$), in the context of discussing buffers is provided: What confused me is that in this ...
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1answer
4k views

Is Sodium Hydroxide a Bronsted-Lowry Base?

I know that sodium hydroxide dissociates into sodium cation and hydroxide, so it must be an Arrhenius base. I am also aware of the rule that all Arrhenius acids and bases are considered to be Brønsted-...
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665 views

Reactivity of boron towards acids

Boron is a non-metal, i.e. it accepts electrons and acids donate electrons, so boron should react with acid but it doesn't. Why?
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Why is lemon mixed with water considered alkalizing water?

The benefits and facts of alkaline water are often skewed due to the marketing of companies and uneducated hype for the innocent idea of unlimited potential. I wanted to know the specific reactions ...
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2answers
44 views

What concentration of HCl is safe to smell? [closed]

I want to give students the chance to gently waft and smell HCl. What concentration would be considered safe for a once-off single waft and smell ?
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1answer
64 views

O-formyl benzoic acid or p- formyl benzoic acid. Which is more acidic?

As far as I can think, the ortho effect comes into play which makes o-formyl benzoic acid more acidic. But according to some, due to Hydrogen bonding between aldehyde and carboxylic group, hydrogen ...
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1answer
35 views

How does an acid dissociate in water [duplicate]

I read somewhere that hydrogen cation combines with water to form hydronium ion. I also read it combines with various water molecules. Can someone please explain?
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1answer
400 views

Is HCl a lewis base?

Cl in HCl has three lone pairs of electrons. So it can donate a lone pair and thus become a lewis base. Right? Just like water is called a lewis base because oxygen has 2 lone pairs and can donate a ...
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1answer
24 views

Weak acids compared to strong ones in pH > 7 solution

In the book of Molecular Cell Biology (Big Alberts) by Alberts, at page 46, it is stated that Acids—especially weak acids—will give up their protons more readily if the concentration of > H3O+ in ...
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1answer
45 views

Dissociation constant for Indicators

So I came across a question which asked to calculate the $\mathrm{pH}$ at which an indicator of given $\mathrm{K_{a}}$ would change colour. The solution was given in the following way Since when the ...
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1answer
65 views

How does chromium behave in a carbonate solution? [closed]

I'm wondering how chromium (as a metal or as a salt) behaves in a concentrated carbonate solution. Will it form any, one or several carbonate specie(s)? Will the metal solubilize? How does it affect ...
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1answer
54 views

Why are these H the most acidic?

I don't quite understand why these two hydrogens are the most acidic. From a hybridization perspective, these are connected to a $\mathrm{sp^3}$ carbon (I thought the more s character, the more acidic)...
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3answers
243 views

What does *oxidizing* have to do with *hydrogen*? [closed]

An oxidizing acid is a Brønsted acid that is a strong oxidizing agent. All Brønsted acids can act as oxidizing agents, because the acidic proton can be reduced to hydrogen gas. (source: Wikipedia) ...
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29 views

Acidity of carboxylic acids

is there a reliable database with the pKa of halogenated carboxylic acids? I am also looking for the pKa of ethanoic acid substituted with other electronegative elements (like sulfur and oxygen).
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256 views

How to make acetic acid more volatile so that it can be removed by vigorous aeration of an acetic acid-water mixture? [closed]

I want to remove acetic acid from a mixture of acetic acid and water by aeration. The concentration of acetic acid is 200 ppm (mg/L). The pH of the water is more than 5. I want to reduce the acetic ...
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1answer
151 views

Fish Fertilizer acid / base reactions

Hi Everyone new to chemistry and learning lots but I had a question that I am having trouble working out. I work for a vegetable grower and we make our own fertilizer. My question is around the fish ...
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1answer
14k views

Basicity Alteration Due To Ortho Effect In Methoxy Aniline System

I wanted to ask something more in reference to this question Ortho-effect in substituted aromatic acids and bases Suppose instead of toluidine, 2-methoxyaniline and 3-methoxyaniline are present. Now ...
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1answer
110 views

How do you find the pH of lime juice through titration?

I am doing an experiment on the effect of time on the $\mathrm{pH}$ of Lime juice. I was wondering how you would calculate the $\mathrm{pH}$ through titrations using $\pu{1 Molar}$ $\ce{NaOH}$. I have ...
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1answer
392 views

Why is maximum buffer capacity for some diprotic buffers not when pH = pKa?

According to Rajkovic et al. [1]: $$β = \frac{[\ce{H+}]}{K_\mathrm{w}} + 2.303\cdot\frac{[\ce{H+}]\cdot K_\mathrm{a}\cdot c}{[\ce{H+}] + K_\mathrm{a}}$$ where $K_\mathrm{a}$ is the dissociation ...
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1answer
32 views

Hydrogen and Hydrogen ion

Is it correct that a hydrogen atom only has 1 electron and 1 proton since the atomic mass is 1? Also, is the hydrogen ion composed of a single proton and no electrons? In an ionization process we know ...
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2answers
1k views

Why is magnesium sulfate acidic? Why are my calculations showing that it is basic?

Let's say I was dissolving $\pu{1 M}~\ce{MgSO4}$ into water and I wanted to find its $\mathrm{pH}$. I would go right to the reaction of the dissociation of $\ce{Mg(OH)2}$: $$\ce{Mg(OH)2 <=> Mg^2+...
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1answer
50k views

How do I calculate the isoelectric point of amino acids, each of which has more than two values of pKa?

For most amino acids, the $\mathrm{pI}$ is simply the arithmetic mean of the amino and carboxyl $\mathrm pK_\mathrm a$s. However, for tyrosine and cysteine, which have more than one $\mathrm pK_\...
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1answer
5k views

Soap versus Shampoo

Soap and shampoo are both cleaning agents in our daily life. Why is soap in solid form and shampoo is in a liquid form, though? Is it because of the chemical components inside them or another factor?...
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1answer
27 views

Is Cu stable as Cu(H2O)2+ for determination on MP-AES? [closed]

I have an unknown sample of mineral which I need to dissolve in nitric acid. I need to analyze $\ce{Cu}$ from it on MP-AES. Do I need to add $\pu{1ml}$ of $\ce{HCl}$ to stabilize $\ce{Cu}$, or it is ...
2
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2answers
66k views

Calculate the pH of acetic acid for a 0.02 M solution

We have a solution $\ce{CH3COOH}$ (acetic acid) with $c=0.02~\mathrm{mol/L}$ and $K_\mathrm a(\ce{CH3COOH}) = 1.8\cdot10^{-5}$. Calculate the $\mathrm{pH}$ of this solution. All I know is that it is ...

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