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Questions tagged [acid-base]

This tag should be applied to questions concerning acid and base reactions. An acid is capable of donating a hydron/ proton (Brønsted acid) or capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (Lewis acid). A base on the other hand is a chemical species/ molecular entity having an available pair of electrons capable of forming a covalent bond with a hydron/ proton (Brønsted base) or with the vacant orbital of some other species (Lewis base).

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8 views

Calculating the ph of a salt solution [on hold]

Calculate the pH at 25 C of a 0.44 M solution of lidocaine HCl (C14H21NONH2Cl). Note that lidocaine (C14H21NONH2Cl) is a weak base with a pKb of 7.94. Round your answer to decimal place.
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12 views

How much Hcl is needed to make a 6.5 pH solution? [on hold]

So if I have 50 mL of a 1xPBS buffer with a pH of around 7.4-7.5, how many microliters of a 5 molar HCl solution would I have to add to get it to a pH of 6.5? Thanks!
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16 views

Calculating pH of a saturated weak acid/base solution [on hold]

How can you calculate the $\mathrm{pH}$ if you know for example the $\mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a}$ or $\mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{b}$ value of a weak acid/base and how much acid/base can dilute in water. Let's ...
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0answers
28 views

Basicity comparison between pyridine amines and other compounds

In cases 1, 2, 3, the compounds will resonate, thus giving them more stability. Firstly, I want to know whether nitrogen has a +M effect? (due to it having a lone pair of electrons?) In case 1, ...
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3answers
63 views

n-Factor of phosphorous acid

It's very confusing that while $\ce{H2SO4}$ has an $n$-factor of 2, whereas $\ce{H3PO3}$ has $n$-factor 2 instead of 3. Many tried explaining it to me by molecular structures, but I don't know how to ...
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0answers
22 views

lowering the pH of NaOCl solution [on hold]

Hypochlorous acid is only commercially available in the form of sodium hypochlorite. From a chemical equilibrium standpoint, As the pH of the solution decreases, some of it changes to hypochlorous ...
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0answers
56 views

How do I compare the order of acid strength of formic acid, acetic acid, phenol and ethanol? [closed]

Compare the acid strength in the following: $\ce{HCOOH}$ $\ce{CH3COOH}$ $\ce{C6H5OH}$ $\ce{C2H5OH}$ I tried to take a look at their conjugate bases stability but can't really ...
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17 views

can parallel circuits be used for the efficient production during series of experiments? [closed]

can parallel circuits be used for the efficient production during series of experiments. Where the voltage and current will determine how much each product will be produced in the end of each ...
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1answer
68 views

Is neutralized and dried suphuric acid still a hazard? Is it still acidic to touch? [on hold]

I mistakenly put a sulfuric acid drain cleaner in my bathroom sink. Some of it spilled into the bathroom in my basement. I cleaned it up using baking soda, but I'm concerned if I missed any, whether ...
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0answers
31 views

Why isn't Kw = ([H+][OH-]) / [H2O], when H2O is the reactant?

For the hypothetical reaction: $$ \ce{A <=> B + C}$$ the equilibrium constant expression is written as $$\ K= \frac{[\ce B][\ce C]}{[\ce A]} $$ So, why is $ K_\mathrm w $ written as: $$ K_\...
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45 views

Why highly electropositive elements form strong bases?

I know that elements like sodium form hydroxides completely dissociate in water than magnesium hydroxide. I came to a conclusion that the nature of bonding may affect this result, that is ostensibly ...
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1answer
13 views

Electrophilic base / nucleophilic acid / basic electrophile / acidic nucleophile [closed]

What I was understanding is that all bases are nucleophiles and acids are electrophiles means the condition for them is same and all nucleophiles are basic and all bases are nucleophiles and same for ...
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1answer
61 views

Why is the carboxyl proton in salicylic acid more acidic than the phenol proton?

I know I'm just wrong about this but I'd appreciate some help seeing why. It seems to me like the phenol proton in salicylic acid should be more acidic than the carboxyl proton. When I try to draw ...
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1answer
55 views

Conditions for the reduction of dichromate by manganese(II) to chromium(III) [closed]

The unbalanced redox reaction $$\ce{Mn^2+ + Cr2O7^2- -> Mn^3+ + Cr^3+}$$ occurs in what type of condition? (a) Acidic (b) Basic (c) Neutral (d) Indeterminable
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2answers
57 views

Finding pH of acid in water [closed]

How would you find the pH of an acid dissolved in water? Would you need to take the fact that the pH of water is already 7 into account and go on from there? Say, for example, that you add 0.0500 mL ...
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1answer
28 views

Appropriate container for storing/keeping chromic acid? [closed]

I am planning to make chromic acid, however I the information for keeping chromic acid are conflicting. Can it be stored in a glass bottle even though it's used as a glass etchant? Also I saw some ...
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0answers
23 views

Why does ammonia have a pKa of 32.5 at −33 °C?

According to Wikipedia, ammonia has a $\mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a}$ of $32.5$ at $\pu{-33 °C}.$ Why does it say that? Is it a typo? Isn't anything above $12$ is a very strong base? And both bases and ...
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1answer
53 views

Why CO2 is not reducing the pH of NaOH as the way it is expected

I am using $\ce{CO2}$ for the reduction of pH of $\ce{NaOH}$ solution ($\pu{2.5g}\; \ce{NaOH} + \pu{250ml}\; \ce{H2O}$, with $\mathrm{pH}\; 13+$). I am introducing $\ce{CO2}$ with different dosages ($\...
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1answer
30 views

Titration/ Separating Soluble Salts/ NaHSO4

When performing titration between NaOH and H2SO4, both Na2SO4 and NaHSO4 are formed (both are soluble in water), is there any method to obtain crystals of NaHSO4? (Maybe by separating two soluble ...
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2answers
39 views

Phenolphthalein Indicator mixed with base that first turns pink and then clear

What occurs in the following situation: After adding 2 drops of Phenolphthalein Indicator (an indicator that turns bases pink and stays clear for acids,) into a unknown solution, the solution turns ...
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1answer
75 views

Preparation of acetate buffer from sodium acetate and hydrochloric acid

A $\pu{1.0 L}$ buffer solution of $\mathrm{pH}~4.43$ is made up of $\pu{0.30 M}$ sodium ethanoate and $\pu{0.20 M}$ $\ce{HCl}$ solutions. Calculate the volume of sodium ethanoate and $\pu{0.20 M}$ $\...
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1answer
31 views

Can sulfuric acid attack a hydrocarbon/paraffin? Under what conditions? [closed]

Sulfuric acid can attack benzene and other hydrocarbons (when mixed with hydrogen peroxide). Also, chlorine gas and bromine can replace hydrogen(s) in hydrocarbons like methane, ethane, propane,butane ...
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2answers
31 views

Does salt hydrolysis takes place in buffer solution? [closed]

I am a bit confused whether hydrolysis of salt takes place in buffer solutions because the books which I read doesnt consider them.But I think since weak base or weak acid salt is present hydrolysis ...
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1answer
56 views

Not a chemist, needs help with a calculation regarding addition of HCl to sodium formate solution [closed]

As stated I am not a chemist, but I need help on a question I have. Assume I have a Formic acid 75% and I add between 5-10 kg to 1.000 liter of water. If I wanted to add sodium formate and HCl 37% to ...
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57 views

Can a universal indicator turn colorless?

I learned that litmus paper could be bleached by chlorine to turn colorless. I’m wondering if any chemical substances can react with all the components of a universal indicator such that it turns ...
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1answer
48 views

Why do strong polyprotic acids not dissociate completely, whereas strong bases with multiple (OH)- groups do?

$\ce{H2SO4}$ is a strong acid, which follows the reaction $$\ce{H2SO4 -> HSO4- + H+}$$ Not $$\ce{H2SO4 -> SO4^2- + 2 H+}$$ However, $$\ce{Ba(OH)2 -> Ba^2+ + 2OH-}$$ Is there a reason why ...
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28 views

Are primary or tertiary carbanions more basic?

I am not sure about the exact IUPAC protocol for this, but I'm imagining a isobutane where the hydrogen disassociates leaving the lone pair on the tertiary carbon. I want to compare it's Bronsted ...
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0answers
36 views

Finding ionic radii from solubility data and density

$\pu{5.35 g}$ of a salt $\ce{ACl}$ is dissolved in $\pu{250 ml}$ of solution. The $\mathrm{pH}$ of the resultant solution was found to be $4.85.$ Find the ionic radius of $\ce{A+}$ and $\ce{Cl-}$ if ...
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1answer
51 views

Can concentrated sulfuric acid oxidize iron(II) to iron(III)?

Can concentrated (18 M) $\ce{H2SO4}$ oxidize $\ce{Fe^2+}$ to $\ce{Fe^3+}?$ Or does it actually block the oxidation? I read in some forum somewhere that in order to prevent $\ce{Fe^2+}$ from being ...
4
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1answer
57 views

What is the reaction between piperine and concentrated sulfuric acid?

Piperine was chemically characterized by reaction with acids. This was done by dropping concentrated $\ce{HNO3},$ $\ce{HCl},$ and $\ce{H2SO4}$ to a sample of piperine. Both $\ce{HNO3}$ and $\ce{HCl}$ ...
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2answers
207 views

Help in drawing resonance structures in case of polybasic acids

While drawing resonance structure of dibasic or tribasic acid, e.g. should I take out two $\ce{H+}$ (in dibasic) or three $\ce{H+}$ (in tribasic) together or one by while drawing resonance structure? ...
4
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0answers
31 views

acid strength: Periodic trends vs delocalisation, which one is more important

In 1st year chemistry questions, the concept of acid strength is often introduced to students including the 3 factors that provide a heuristic explanation for most of the common acids and conjugate ...
2
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0answers
67 views

Acidic strength order of mineral acids in acetic acid

Explain this acidic strength order $\ce{H2SO4} > \ce{HCl} > \ce{HNO3}$ in acetic acid. My Attempt Stability of conjugate base is proportional to the acidic strength of acids in acetic acid. $\...
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1answer
36 views

Vinegar salt reaction to produce acid; does it matter what type of vinegar I use

I am trying to get get hydrogen chloride gas by using the reaction sodium chloride + vinegar = HCl(g) + sodium acetate, does it matter what type of vinegar I use eg apple cider vinegar, malt vinegar; ...
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1answer
65 views

Will distillation do the job of purifying the water?

I asked about my sophisticated water purification system for a generation ship on Worldbuilding Stack Exchange, and somebody mentioned this: If you're gonna go to all the trouble of distilling it, ...
2
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1answer
45 views

How to determine if a compound is a strong, weak, or non-electrolyte? [closed]

I'm stuck on questions asking whether a given chemical formula is a strong or weak electrolyte in an aqueous solution. I did some research online, but could not get a specific solution that I could ...
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0answers
30 views

Hydrogen bonding in o-nitrophenol versus o-nitobenzoic acid

p-nitrophenol is more acidic than o-nitrophenol because of hydrogen bonding in the latter. If I apply the same logic, then o-nitrobenzoic acid should be less acidic than p-nitrobenzoic acid. However, ...
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0answers
33 views

The most acidic hydrogen of 4‐hydroxybutanenitrile

Identify the most acidic hydrogen atom in the compound below: $$\ce{NC-CH2-CH2-CH2-OH}$$ My teacher said that the $\ce{H}$ connected to $\ce{O}$ is the most acidic since $\ce{O}$ is more ...
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0answers
68 views

Can I reverse an iron redox reaction with potassium hydroxide and electricity?

For a school project, about clean energy, me and my team are trying to build an iron battery. We are using a piece of iron (anode), potassium hydroxide (electrolyte), carbon electrode (cathode) ...
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2answers
108 views

Why doesn't ethanol dissolve in sodium bicarbonate?

Today I experimented with different solvents and solutes and was a bit surprised by one result. When I added ethanol to dilute sodium bicarbonate and tapped the test tube against my palm to mix it, I ...
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1answer
23 views

Using a weak acid to prevent the precipitation of Mg(OH)2

I have this exercise in my chemistry book, and I have been staring at it for so long but unfortunately I have no single idea what to do and where to start. I will be so thankful for any help. $0.05$ ...
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0answers
32 views

Why is BF3 hard while BBr3 is borderline(HSAB concept)?

This is a table given in a text book regarding hard acids How come BF3 is a harder acid than BBr3? My reasoning: To check which is harder: 1.Both difficult to polarize 2.Both similar in size It ...
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0answers
77 views

Primitive Technology - Production of NaOH

We need to produce NaOH with primitive Technology. This is Part 1 of my Gilligan's Island Challenge series (Part 2). You are stuck on an island with access to a beach, a forest, a river, a lake, and a ...
0
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1answer
82 views

Acetone basicity [closed]

Why doesn't acetone have high basicity? The C−O bond is polar, O becomes partially negatively charged and it should attract protons, becoming a strong base.
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0answers
27 views

What will be the Lewis acid and Lewis base in the reactions between aluminium(III) aqua complex and hydroxide?

$\ce{Al^3+}$ in water will be hydrated, formed a complex ion $\ce{[Al(H2O)6]^3+(aq)}$ that can neutralize hydroxide ion according to the following reactions: $$ \begin{align} \ce{[Al(H2O)6]^3+ + ...
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1answer
172 views

How do I calculate the ensemble-average net charge of an amino acid at given pH?

I am given an amino acid with an ionizable side chain at a certain pH. How do I determine the net charge of that amino acid when there are mixed protonation states of one or more of the groups at that ...
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1answer
22 views

Can I use Ascorbic acid powder as a preservative to extend the shelf life in pickled brine recipe? [closed]

Can I use Ascorbic acid powder as a preservative to extend the shelf life in pickled brine recipe made with vinegar?
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1answer
69 views

Neutralization between Ca(OH)2 + H2SO4 in a 30% hydrogen peroxide solution

I have performed an experiment where I added an excess of $\ce{Ca(OH)2}$ base to a solution consisting of 5 mL of 30 % hydrogen peroxide (buffered at pH 5) and a very small amount of sulfuric acid (...
1
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2answers
124 views

Why exactly is a fluoride anion a stronger base than iodine anion? [closed]

First off, I've learnt that stronger acids produce weaker conjugate bases (through Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory). Then I looked at the $\mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a}$ values of $\ce{HF}$, $\ce{HCl}$, $\...
3
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2answers
30 views

Can mechanical agitation increase the reaction rate?

The specific example I saw recently was cleansing of concrete (portland cement) film from brick using a diluted muriatic acid. It appeared that the more scrubbing was used, the quicker the cleaning ...