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Questions tagged [acid-base]

This tag should be applied to questions concerning acid and base reactions. An acid is capable of donating a hydron/ proton (Brønsted acid) or capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (Lewis acid). A base on the other hand is a chemical species/ molecular entity having an available pair of electrons capable of forming a covalent bond with a hydron/ proton (Brønsted base) or with the vacant orbital of some other species (Lewis base).

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Why is a basic (not acidic) electrolyte frequently suggested for electrolytic de-rusting of metal or iron objects?

For home or do-it-yourself electrolytic de-rusting of steel or iron objects, the use of a soda-based electrolyte, such as "washing soda" (sodium carbonate) is almost always mentioned. I have ...
Peggy Schafer's user avatar
-3 votes
0 answers
27 views

Dissociation of H2SO4 [closed]

What is the complete dissociation of H2SO4? I am studying Chemistry O-level and so we don't consider the water in the equation. Thank you to whoever tries to help.
Sarah's user avatar
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-3 votes
0 answers
30 views

Seperating Na2SO4 from a solution of an aquoues solution of Na2So4 and KCl [closed]

I'm working on a project, where I need to separate Na2SO4 from an aqueous solution containing Na2SO4 and KCl. I am currently using the leaching process but need to improve the efficiency of Na2SO4's ...
user146441's user avatar
10 votes
2 answers
2k views

What is "soda asbestos"?

I found an old bottle labeled "soda asbestos" in the lab. It is a granular material with a grain size of about 0.5 mm. A newer label put on top says "sodium hydroxide". It is brown,...
Gimelist's user avatar
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-4 votes
2 answers
40 views

Which one of these is neither acidic or amphoteric? Would the same question be "which one is the most basic?" ? It says that b) is the answer [closed]

I'm stuck on this problem that isn't explained much in the teachers notes (no detailed explanation on why Bi2O3 is the answer). Google gives mixed answers (it's either basic or amphoteric), and ...
Robertsson's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
190 views

Calculating the heat of reaction between sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide

For my lab report I have to calculate the theoretical heat of reaction $\Delta H_{\text{rxn}}$ between sulfuric acid $\ce{H2SO4}$ and sodium hydroxide $\ce{NaOH}$ using their heat of formations. The ...
user10059620's user avatar
-2 votes
0 answers
11 views

Acidity order of ortho-methyl phenol, meta-methyl phenol , and para-methyl phenol [duplicate]

why meta-methyl phenol is more acidic as compared to ortho-methyl phenol and para-methyl phenol and why ortho-methyl phenol is the least acidic?
Abdulmenan Shemsu's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
66 views

How to predict whether a redox or an acid-base reaction will occur? [duplicate]

I've been thinking a lot about this question, but even after intense research, I didn't find any satisfying answer, even here. So here's my question, illustrated with an example: We have a negatively ...
dark_ursus's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
98 views

Why is Piperidine more basic than Pyridine? [duplicate]

Piperidine, which has sp3 carbons attached to it, experiences an increase in electron density on the nitrogen atom, making it more basic. However, when we look at the resonating structures of pyridine,...
Shashwat's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
82 views

Why is phosphoric acid a weak acid?

What is the reason for the phosphoric acid $\ce{H3PO4}$ being a weak acid despite having a structure similar to that of sulfuric acid $\ce{H2SO4}?$ I found some sources claiming that the resonance of ...
Kampann's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
42 views

TsOH and 5% NaHCO3 Interaction: Unexpected Dark Green Color

Here's the brief: I synthesized alkyl gallates (ethyl gallate, butyl gallate, and amyl gallate) using Fischer esterification. I used TsOH instead of concentrated H2SO4 as the catalyst. After ...
Jonathan's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
88 views

Why Is HOI a weaker acid than HOCl?

In HOI, the oxygen would be more negatively charged than the oxygen in HOCl because iodine is less electronegative than chlorine. Thus the O-H bond in HOI would be more polarized, which would mean it ...
Kryptic Coconut's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
34 views

Explaination of order of leaving groups

In Solomons' Organic Chemistry, in a section discussing leaving groups, it is stated that$-$ Among the halogens, an iodide ion is the best leaving group and a fluoride ion is the poorest: $$I− > ...
Eisenstein's user avatar
1 vote
3 answers
167 views

pH at maximum concentration of a certain species (Phosphoric acid) [closed]

I am trying to find the pH at which $[H_{2}PO_{4} ^{-}]$ is maximum by only knowing the pKas. I have tried to derive an equation using kinetics but it failed [1]. After taking a look at the Sillén/...
David's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
49 views

Why aren't aldehydes more acidic than saturated alcohols?

Aldehydes (pKa ~17-20) and ketones (pKa >20) are worse acids than alcohols (pKa ~15-16). I have seen that the equilibrium of aldehydes (and ketones) with their hydrates greatly decreases pKa values ...
mechanist's user avatar
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1 vote
4 answers
143 views

Pedantic: Is NH4(+) or NH4Cl the acid?

This is pedantic and trivial query. For this below reaction, $$\ce{NH4Cl + NaOH -> NH3 + H2O + NaCl}$$ we can reduce it to its net ionic equation $$\ce{NH4+ + OH- -> NH3 + H2O}$$ Is it correct ...
Percival the caterpillar's user avatar
-1 votes
2 answers
56 views

Two different reaction pathways that explain the non-neutrality of a dissolved salt

So the problem is this: is the sodium acetate acidic, basic or neutral? One of my textbooks (ATAR Notes chemistry) says in solution, acetate simply (due to its negative charge) accepts protons and ...
Percival the caterpillar's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
99 views

Naunyn's definition of acids and bases

An excerpt from the online lecture I'm studying is as follows: 1880-Arrhenius defines an acid as a substance that , when dissolved in >water, produces an increased concentration of hydrogen ions. ...
red wood's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
50 views

Phase diagram of ammonium hydrosulfide, a volatile salt

Salts (ionic compounds) usually have low volatility due to the strong ionic bond. However, there are exceptions. Smelling salts decompose and release ammonia gas. What is "volatile"? If a ...
Kevin Kostlan's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
34 views

Secondary alkyl halides and strong base: Sn2 vs E2

I got this question from the PYQs of a college entrance exam. According to the answer key, 4-chloro-3-methylpent-1-ene reacts with NaOH in water to give 4-hydroxy-3-methylpent-1-ene via the SN2 ...
AADETYA JAISWAL's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
156 views

How does the concentration of H+ ions in HCl change as the pH changes? [closed]

I am helping my friend's 16 year old prepare for her GCSE chemistry exam. This question was on an AQA GCSE Chemistry past paper but I do not know the year and could not find a markscheme for it on the ...
Judith Jones's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
118 views

Amphoteric character of V2O5

In my NCERT textbook, in the chapter 'The d- and f-block elements', the last paragraph under oxides and oxoanions of metals goes like this: $(...)$ $\ce{V2O5}$ is, however, amphoteric though mainly ...
Harikrishnan M's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
30 views

Trends in pKb for both acetic acid and water

I am trying to rationalise a result that I have recently measured in the lab. I'm measuring the pKb of different compounds in anhydrous acetic acid, using the procedure outlined in this paper (https://...
Stephen's user avatar
  • 11
-2 votes
2 answers
78 views

Reaction between copper rod and carbon rod in hydrochloric acid [closed]

The situation is this: a copper rod and a carbon rod, touching each other, are submerged in HCl(aq). We're asked to describe the reaction that occurs, but as far as I can see, there's no reaction? The ...
BG LAU's user avatar
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4 votes
0 answers
235 views

Exchange of Fluorine to Oxygen for Fluorophosphonic acid by silylating agents or other methods?

[Warning, long post!] Dear all, I am confronted with a seemingly easy transformation. I want to remove a fluorine atom at a fluor phosphonic acid salt. The usual method to achieve this is the basic ...
raptorlane's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
44 views

pH in a buffer of Glycin and HCl

I am struggling with a task. I have the amino acid Glycin with pKa1=2,3 and pKa2=9,6. I have 1.0 liter 0.20 mol/L solution of glycin. I add 0.1 liter 1 mol/L HCl solution. What is the pH in this ...
user144495's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
75 views

Hydrogen–deuterium exchange in 1,4-benzoquinone

Problem Find number of deuterium exchanges in the following compound. Solution Question I have been taught that hydrogen attached to the carbon which is directly or indirectly in conjugation with ...
Haider's user avatar
  • 93
-2 votes
1 answer
59 views

Is it possible to calculate the theoretical rate of reaction?

I am conducting an experiment where I will be changing concentration (0.2 mol/dm3, 0.4 mol/dm3, 0.6 mol/dm3, 0.8 mol/dm3, 1.0 mol/dm3) and seeing how that affects the rate of reaction for a reaction ...
risa's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
181 views

Why are bases corrosive?

If I understand correctly, an acid corrodes things because the hydronium ion attracts electrons away from whatever it is reacting with. Do bases corrode things in a similar manner? with the metal ...
Alan's user avatar
  • 27
-2 votes
1 answer
36 views

Is HCl in salt form reactive with metallized aluminium plastic film? [closed]

I’m in the process of packaging an amino acid that contains HCl in salt form. The mixture is 60% base and 40% HCl salt. Will this react to metallized aluminium plastic?
user144358's user avatar
-3 votes
1 answer
74 views

Why are alcohols considered slightly basic (based on pKa values)?

I understand why it makes sense for an alcohol to be slightly basic given the hydroxyl group and the electron-donating properties of the alkyl chain. But I'm a bit confused as to why it's the case ...
heyhellohi2's user avatar
-2 votes
1 answer
46 views

Hydrolysis of $A_3B$ type weak acid-weak base salt

I know the formulae for weak acid-weak base salt of AB type. A peculiar question made me ask this. Do the formula for derived for AB type also hold for A3B type sal. For example: This is the question, ...
Aurelius's user avatar
13 votes
2 answers
2k views

Could ammonium azanide exist?

In my first high school chemistry class, I misremembered nitrate as being $\ce{NH2-}$, rather than $\ce{NO3-}$, and wrote down a formula for "ammonium nitrate" that was $\ce{NH4NH2}$ (rather ...
Radvylf Programs's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
67 views

How do you identify an organic base?

Problem: Solution: The molecules with red crosses underneath them are considered organic bases. Question: From my understanding an organic base has an atom with a lone pair of electrons. Doesn't ...
Nora's user avatar
  • 123
0 votes
1 answer
62 views

Change in pH/acidity of vinegar after adding aqueous NaCl

There's a question in my (grade 10) textbook asking to determine what will happen to the pH/acidity of vinegar if a solution of sodium chloride in distilled water is added to it drop by drop. The ...
Abhinav Sood's user avatar
-5 votes
1 answer
97 views

Find the pH of a solution obtained by mixing 100 ml 0.1m Na3PO4 and 100 ml 0.1 M NaH2PO4. Given that H3PO4: [Κα₁ = 10^-4, Κα₂ = 10^-7, Каз = 10^-11] [closed]

So, my query is that since NaH2PO4 is a weak acid, and Na3PO4 is a basic salt, wouldn't they react? Another theory was that since NaH2PO4 is a weak acid and Na3PO4 is a salt of strong acid and NaH2PO4,...
qwqwqwerty-7's user avatar
-2 votes
1 answer
113 views

Can phosphorous penta hydroxide [P(OH)5] exist? [closed]

I was looking at the oxyacids of Phosphorous and it is given that (in Wikipedia article of "Phosphorous acid"), some of these acids (Eg: $H_3PO_2$ and $H_3PO_3$) exist in a dynamic ...
BK01's user avatar
  • 55
0 votes
0 answers
58 views

What is happenning with that single hydrogen in Phosphorous acid?

As an oxyacid, Phosphorous acid intuitively should have the structure since the hydrogens should be on the oxygens. However, the major form of this acid is actually with the hydrogen attached to the ...
Captain Chicky's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
25 views

Aquatic chemistry, pH and alkalinity

Hope you can help me with an aquatic chemistry question. I have different types of water of different pH and alkalinity. pH, alkalinity, HCO3 and CO2 concentrations are known. I need to calculate the ...
Nathan's user avatar
  • 11
1 vote
0 answers
81 views

Why doesn't acid dissociation always have K>1?

Acid dissociation is usually exothermic, and it has an increase in entropy, so the change in Gibbs free energy should be negative. So why isn't always $K_\mathrm{a}>1$ in accordance with $\Delta G^...
unstable's user avatar
  • 198
-1 votes
1 answer
93 views

What is the pKa of choline chloride?

I am looking for the pKa of choline chloride, which should be higher than 7 (around 10?), but I cannot find any reference value.
David Moldes's user avatar
-3 votes
1 answer
54 views

How does increased polarity of O-H increase acidity? Shouldn't it reduce it as bond strength increases?

A polar bond will be stronger than a relatively less polar bond. So how does increasing polarity of O-H bond ever increase acidity. Shoudn't it make it harder to release H+ and become less acidic.
Mohammed Hamza's user avatar
7 votes
2 answers
608 views

Question about the differences of white and grey NaH properties

We are having some problems with the next reaction in our lab. As you can see, is the sulfonylation of an indole in which we use NaH (60% dispersion in mineral oil) as a base. This reaction goes with ...
Alicia's user avatar
  • 81
1 vote
0 answers
94 views

Acid base titration molar ratio [closed]

Consider the following neutralisation reaction: $$ \ce{2HNO3 + Ba(OH)2 -> Ba(NO3)2 + 2H2O} \tag{1} $$ I would be glad for help in how to solve this problem with $c_1V_1 = c_2 V_2$, because the ...
Miiky's user avatar
  • 29
0 votes
0 answers
72 views

Common Ion effect with sulphuric acid

Sulphuric acid dissociates completely (H2SO4 -> HSO4⁻ + H⁺). Its product HSO4⁻ has a pKa of 1.92 which should then dissociate partially into SO4²⁻ and H⁺. I was trying to find out the pH of a 0.05M ...
David's user avatar
  • 31
0 votes
0 answers
32 views

Question on electron density

I was working with ammonia ($\ce{NH3}$) and phosphine($\ce{PH3}$). Both have lone pair electron. But $\ce{NH3}$ is stronger base (Lewis base) than $\ce{PH3}$. I was told by my instructor that it is ...
Himalayan's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
128 views

Why is the ionic product of water also the equilibrium constant of dissociation of water?

This answer presents a derivation of the value of ionic product of water at $25^{\circ}\text{C}$. The relation $K_\text{eq} = \operatorname{e}^{-\frac{\Delta_\text{r}G^{\circ}}{RT}}$ is used for the ...
Dodo's user avatar
  • 289
-2 votes
1 answer
62 views

Is boric acid aqueous solution corrosive to stainless steel? [closed]

I'm thinking of trying an aqueous boric acid solution in a nebulizer for a sinus infection, in a similar strength as for eyewash (anywhere from 1 tsp. in 4 oz. to 1 tsp. in 32 oz.). My nebulizer has a ...
Marilyn's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
50 views

Making Sodium Citrate

I've been trying to make Sodium Citrate and I've seen online people saying just react sodium bicarbonate with citric acid in water (with correct ratios) and boil off/remove water once the reaction has ...
James Hamp's user avatar
-6 votes
1 answer
103 views

How long would it take fluoroantimonic acid to melt through a tiger's body? [closed]

I'm writing a story in which a character throws a knife containing fluoroantimonic acid contained within hydrofluoric acid, which is itself contained within fluorinated plastic, into a tiger's mouth. ...
JaneDoe24's user avatar

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