Questions tagged [acid-base]

This tag should be applied to questions concerning acid and base reactions. An acid is capable of donating a hydron/ proton (Brønsted acid) or capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (Lewis acid). A base on the other hand is a chemical species/ molecular entity having an available pair of electrons capable of forming a covalent bond with a hydron/ proton (Brønsted base) or with the vacant orbital of some other species (Lewis base).

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-3
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0answers
24 views

What type of reaction is this? [on hold]

1.AgO+HCl=AgCl+H2O Is this reaction possible? If it is possible ,would it be right to call it a precipitation reaction as well as a neutralization reaction? 2.Zn+CuSo4(aq)=ZnSO4+Cu Can this ...
1
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2answers
717 views

Applying Henderson–Hasselbalch equation to amino acids: which pKa to use to calculate Z-/HZ ratio?

I was wondering which $\mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a}$ to use when calculating the ratio of $\ce{HZ}$ to $\ce{Z-}$ of amino acids, the Henderson–Hasselbalch formula used: $$\mathrm{pH} = \mathrm{p}K_\text{a} ...
7
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3answers
14k views

Is ammonium a strong or weak conjugate acid?

Ammonium, $\ce{NH_4^+}$, is the conjugate acid of ammonia, $\ce{NH_3}$. I have searched the Internet and so many different answers pop up. The rule of thumb that I read was that a strong acid has a ...
-1
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0answers
35 views

I conducted a neutralisation reaction at school and there was fizzing. How is this possible? [on hold]

The reaction was $$\ce{HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) -> NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) + Energy}$$
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0answers
29 views

Finding the maximum mass of copper(II) nitrate that can be produced from a given mass of copper [on hold]

I have the following chemical equation: $$\ce{Cu(s) + 4 HNO3(aq) -> Cu(NO3)2(aq) + 2 H2O(l) + 2 NO2(g)}$$ The mass of copper in the equation is 0.6355 g. I am trying to find the maximum mass of ...
-1
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1answer
20 views

Using a weak acid to prevent the precipitation of Mg(OH)2

I have this exercise in my chemistry book, and I have been staring at it for so long but unfortunately I have no single idea what to do and where to start. I will be so thankful for any help. $0.05$ ...
5
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3answers
61k views

What is the maximum molarity of aqueous HCl?

Here is a problem a made up: We have some aqueous $\ce{HCl}$. What is the maximum possible molarity of the $\ce{HCl}$? How do I solve this? I don't have any good ideas.
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0answers
18 views

Basic strength of pyridine and Imidazole [on hold]

Why not conjugate acid of pyridine is stablised by conjugation just like conjugate acid of imidazole which is stabilised by conjugation?
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0answers
27 views

Are these toilet soaps not recommended for bathing? [on hold]

When you see dettol or lux soaps, it is written toilet soaps on them. But all advertisements on TV show male and female using them for their body while taking bath. When you specifically search ...
0
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0answers
19 views

Why is BF3 hard while BBr3 is borderline(HSAB concept)?

This is a table given in a text book regarding hard acids How come BF3 is a harder acid than BBr3? My reasoning: To check which is harder: 1.Both difficult to polarize 2.Both similar in size It ...
0
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0answers
22 views

Potentiometric titration of sulfuric acid and NaOH to find pKa of sulfuric acid at the two equivalence points [on hold]

When I perform the titration, I am not able to get two points of inflection when I plot a graph of pH and volume. I did research about it and there are reasons for me not being able to see two ...
6
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1answer
4k views

Buffer formation in weak acid/strong base titration?

I'm a little confused about what happens when you titrate a weak acid or base. For example, let's say that you are trying to titrate a weak acid. Based on this question, it seems like the weak acid ...
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0answers
20 views

Can someone explain how a water molecule reacts to form ions? [on hold]

How does a water molecule react in order to form ions? Please explain. H20 apparently separates into H+ and OH-.
2
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1answer
369 views

Arrange the following in increasing order of acidity: water, ammonia, ethyne and ethane

I know that ethyne is more acidic than ethane because of more s character. For water and ammonia, I used the fact that oxygen is more electronegative than nitrogen and will be able to stabilize the ...
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0answers
28 views

Calculating heat of neutralisation

Two acids $\ce{HX}$ and $\ce{HY}$ have strength ratio $5:2$. Their heat of neutralisation are in ratio $5:4$. If $40\ \mathrm g$ of $\ce{NaOH}$ is added to a mixture of acids containing $1\ \mathrm g$ ...
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0answers
43 views

Titration Problems [closed]

Suppose you used 2.603 g of THAM to make the 250 mL THAM solution and it took 39.76 mL of your unknown HCl solution to reach the end point of the titration. What is the molarity of the HCl solution? (...
7
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3answers
21k views

Determine the pH of mixture of two weak acids

We’ve two solutions : Solution 1 $\ce{HCOOH}$ its concentration is $c_1=10^{-2}\ \mathrm{mol/l}$ and its volume is $v_1 = 50\ \mathrm{ml}$ and its $\mathrm{pH}_1 = 2.9$ Solution 2 $\ce{CH_3COOH}$ ...
0
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1answer
61 views

Neutralization between Ca(OH)2 + H2SO4 in a 30% hydrogen peroxide solution

I have performed an experiment where I added an excess of $\ce{Ca(OH)2}$ base to a solution consisting of 5 mL of 30 % hydrogen peroxide (buffered at pH 5) and a very small amount of sulfuric acid (...
5
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4answers
28k views

Sulfuric acid fumes from cleaning shower drain

This morning a workman came by to my newly rented property to fix a few things, among which a slightly blocked bathtub drain. He let some mild water run continuously and he poured down a chemical, ...
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0answers
9 views

conversion in acid-base lab [closed]

I have been reviewing an A&P respiratory pH lab and one step instructs the student to titrate NaOH into a beaker with CO2 and phenolphthalein indicator, then "Convert the number of drops of NaOH ...
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0answers
77 views

Primitive Technology - Production of NaOH

We need to produce NaOH with primitive Technology. This is Part 1 of my Gilligan's Island Challenge series (Part 2). You are stuck on an island with access to a beach, a forest, a river, a lake, and a ...
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1answer
87 views

How do I calculate the ensemble-average net charge of an amino acid at given pH?

I am given an amino acid with an ionizable side chain at a certain pH. How do I determine the net charge of that amino acid when there are mixed protonation states of one or more of the groups at that ...
0
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1answer
68 views

Acetone basicity [closed]

Why doesn't acetone have high basicity? The C−O bond is polar, O becomes partially negatively charged and it should attract protons, becoming a strong base.
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0answers
26 views

What will be the Lewis acid and Lewis base in the reactions between aluminium(III) aqua complex and hydroxide?

$\ce{Al^3+}$ in water will be hydrated, formed a complex ion $\ce{[Al(H2O)6]^3+(aq)}$ that can neutralize hydroxide ion according to the following reactions: $$ \begin{align} \ce{[Al(H2O)6]^3+ + ...
3
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6answers
11k views

Decreasing order of basic strength

I need to find the decreasing basicity of the following compounds(I, II, III, IV, respectively): I know that to compare the basic strengths, we need to find the stability of their conjugate acids. ...
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1answer
20 views

Can I use Ascorbic acid powder as a preservative to extend the shelf life in pickled brine recipe? [closed]

Can I use Ascorbic acid powder as a preservative to extend the shelf life in pickled brine recipe made with vinegar?
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0answers
46 views

How are salts isolated from an acid?

I am curious in the production of salts (specifically stannous chloride and palladium chloride) by dissolving the metals in $\ce{HCl}$ in stoichiometric amounts: $$\ce{Sn (s) + 2HCl (aq) -> SnCl2 (...
3
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0answers
931 views

Acidity comparison of charged group 16 hydrides

March's Organic Chemistry (7th ed - page 337 under "Periodic Table Correlations" in chapter "Acids and Bases") states that: $\ce{H3O+ > H3S+ > H3Se+}$ is the acidity order of these charged ...
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2answers
62 views

Why exactly is a fluoride anion a stronger base than iodine anion? [closed]

First off, I've learnt that stronger acids produce weaker conjugate bases (through Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory). Then I looked at the $\mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a}$ values of $\ce{HF}$, $\ce{HCl}$, $\...
2
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2answers
11k views

Electrolysis of diluted sulfuric acid

My teacher told me that electrolysis of dil. $\ce{H2SO4}$ (concentration below $50\%$) using inert electrodes results in gradual increase of the concentration of $\ce{H2SO4}$. I can't seem to figure ...
1
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1answer
118 views

Why is maximum buffer capacity for some diprotic buffers not when pH = pKa?

According to Rajkovic et al. [1]: $$β = \frac{[\ce{H+}]}{K_\mathrm{w}} + 2.303\cdot\frac{[\ce{H+}]\cdot K_\mathrm{a}\cdot c}{[\ce{H+}] + K_\mathrm{a}}$$ where $K_\mathrm{a}$ is the ...
0
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1answer
80 views

Steric Inhibition of Resonance in ortho-substituted Benzoic Acids

It is given that due to Steric Inhibition of Resonance (SIR), the acidity of ortho-substituted benzoic acid increases with respect to benzoic acid. If this is the case then the conjugate base of the ...
3
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2answers
29 views

Can mechanical agitation increase the reaction rate?

The specific example I saw recently was cleansing of concrete (portland cement) film from brick using a diluted muriatic acid. It appeared that the more scrubbing was used, the quicker the cleaning ...
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0answers
29 views

Will Chlorodifluoromethane (R22 refrigerant) react with calcium metal?

I am attempting to recycle or find a use for chlorodifluoromethane, however I do not want to risk venting it into the atmosphere or exposing myself to hydrofluoric acid. Ideally, I would like to ...
12
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4answers
15k views

Acidity order of nitrophenols

As in other posts I have seen and learnt that, if one is given four compounds, namely para-nitrophenol, ortho-nitrophenol, meta-nitrophenol and phenol and is told to arrange them in order of acidity, ...
12
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1answer
9k views

Relative acidities of alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes

How does one explain the trend in bond lengths and acidity of the following hydrocarbons? $$\begin{array}{ccc} \hline \text{Species} & \ce{C-H}\text{ bond length / Å} & \mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a} ...
3
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1answer
66 views

Thermodynamic vs kinetic basicity [closed]

I'm writing something related to basicity and came across few papers that distinguish thermodynamic and kinetic basicity. "In particular, the study of hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) within proton ...
2
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1answer
837 views

Why is magnesium sulfate acidic? Why are my calculations showing that it is basic?

Let's say I was dissolving $\pu{1M}~\ce{MgSO_4}$ into water and I wanted to find the pH. I would go right to the reaction of the dissociation of $\ce{Mg(OH)_2}$: $$\ce{Mg(OH)_2 <=> Mg^2+ + 2OH-}...
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1answer
56 views

Calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid - data analysis [closed]

I conducted an experiment in which $\pu{10mL}$ of dilute hydrochloric acid was added to a beaker, and this acid was heated up to room temperature ($\pu{22 ^\circ C}$) using a Bunsen burner. Then, $\pu{...
4
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3answers
148 views

Why isn't my galvanic cell making enough voltage?

I'm in kind of a pickle here. I made a galvanic cell of Lead and aluminium for a chemistry internal assessment but unfortunately, it didn't turn out so well and neither me nor my teacher has any clue ...
26
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1answer
4k views

Why does lemon juice reduce the “fish” odor of sea food — specifically fish?

In studying about amines, I read that lemon juice is also used to wash fish because it reacts with the amines on and in the fish to convert the amines to its salt, just reducing the "fishy smell". I ...
2
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1answer
2k views

Comparing Basic strengths of different species

I was doing questions on organic chemistry. I came across tonnes of questions where I was required to compare basic and acidic strengths. Comparing acidic strengths is fine — I remove an $\ce{...
1
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1answer
43 views

Why is trichloromethane more acidic than trifluoromethane? [duplicate]

In Concise Inorganic Chemistry by JD Lee (4th edition; adapted by Sudarshan Guha), page 78 under the topic "Back Bonding" it is given: $\ce{CHCl3}$ is more acidic than $\ce{CHF3}$ which is ...
1
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0answers
12 views

Is coupling reaction performed in acidic or basic medium? [duplicate]

Why is coupling reaction between aryldiazonium chloride and aniline carried out in a mild basic medium and not under acidic medium? According to me, it can be performed in both mediums.
7
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1answer
232 views

How to derive the conductivity titration curve which accounts for salt formation

I derived an equation that gave me the volume of base required to get a certain $\mathrm{pH}$: In a titration between a weak acid $\ce{HA}$ and weak base $\ce{B}$ (adding base into acid solution) the ...
0
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1answer
112 views

Understanding the increase in pH of a buffer solution upon incremental additions of NaOH analytically

So let's say we have $200\ \mathrm{mL}$ of $1\ \mathrm M$ $\ce{CH3COOH}$ solution. In this solution we have the equilibrium $\ce{CH3COOH <=> CH3COO- + H+}$. To that we add $100\ \mathrm{mL}$ of $...
1
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0answers
21 views

Diketone intramolecular reaction question

I realize that one of the methyl groups on either carbonyl compound will become deprotonated and then it will attack the other carbonyl to form a pentane ring. However, with the methyl group in the ...
5
votes
3answers
130 views

Iterative method for calculating pH of a weak acid / base

The problem asks to determine the $[\ce{H+}]$ in a $0.20~\mathrm{M}$ solution of $\ce{Na3PO4}$. The $K_\mathrm{a}$ of $\ce{HPO4-}$ was given as $4.5\times 10^{-13}$, which then allows one to calculate ...
2
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0answers
58 views

Which is more basic: oxaziridine or diaziridine? [closed]

Which is more basic: oxaziridine or diaziridine? Oxaziridine's got one nitrogen and one oxygen as heteroatoms, while in diaziridine there are both nitrogens.
3
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1answer
72 views

Does hyperconjugation into sigma-star explain methylamine's increased basicity relative to ammonia?

The inductive effect with the polarisation of the C-N bond obviously plays a role in stabilising the positive charge of the conjugate acid. But given the similar electronegativities for C and H, CH3 ...