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Questions tagged [acid-base]

This tag should be applied to questions concerning acid and base reactions. An acid is capable of donating a hydron/ proton (Brønsted acid) or capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (Lewis acid). A base on the other hand is a chemical species/ molecular entity having an available pair of electrons capable of forming a covalent bond with a hydron/ proton (Brønsted base) or with the vacant orbital of some other species (Lewis base).

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Why does the neutralisation of any strong acid in an aqueous solution by any strong base

Why does the neutralisation of any strong acid in an aqueous solution by any strong base always result in a heat of reaction of approximately –57 kJ mol−1?
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Acidity of polysulfanes

In a chemistry olympiad I had this morning, there was a question on the acidity of polysulfanes. Specifically, it asked candidates to explain the increasing acidity of polysulfanes as the number of ...
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99 views

What is the pH of a solution made by mixing 10.00 mL of 0.10 M acetic acid with 10.00 mL of 0.10 M KOH?

What is the pH of a solution made by mixing 10.00 mL of 0.10 M acetic acid with 10.00 mL of 0.10 M KOH? The $K_a =1.8 × 10^{-5}$ for $\ce{CH_3CO_2H}$. Assume that the volumes of the solutions are ...
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1answer
37 views

Acids using different solvents [closed]

Many polar protic solvents exist and ionic compounds are able to dissolve inside these substances for the same reason as water. So, theoretically, if a substance were to steal a $H^+$ ion from a polar ...
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1answer
113 views

Reaction between HCl and NaHCO3 [duplicate]

I want to know why in the reaction between HCl and NaHCO3, we have CO2 and H2O instead of H2CO3 ?
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31 views

Why don't zwitter ions show ortho effect?

I recently came across a statement which said that zwitter ions are an exception to the ortho effect. Is it because the ions attract each other and the -COOH group is brought back into the plane ...
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1answer
75 views

Why do nonmetal oxides react with water to form acidic compounds? [closed]

I am confused about the molecular basis by which nonmetal oxides react with water to form acidic compounds. For example, I understand that sulfur trioxide reacts with water to form sulfuric acid as ...
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1answer
107 views

How does base size affect the ratio of kinetic/thermodynamic enolate?

One of the factors that favor kinetic products is bulky bases. So, I'd expect that, for a certain substrate, the use of a more bulky base to favor even more the kinetic product. However, in the table ...
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44 views

Effect of H-bonding on o-nitrobenzoic acid

My argument here is regarding the acidity of o-nitrobenzoic acid being greater than p,m-nitrobenzoic acid. In o-nitrobenzoic acid, there is an intramolecular hydrogen bond which makes the bond ...
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1answer
19 views

The test of metal hydroxides and metal oxides

Is testing metal oxide different from testing metal hydroxide using a litmus paper?
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2answers
44 views

Sodium Sulfate or Sodium Peroxysulfate? [closed]

I needed some unadulterated H2SO4 to react with some steel wool to render Ferrous Sulphate then to ferrous hydroxide for some experiments with ferromagnetic cores. I thought to use Sodium ...
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How to identify the most stable Lewis adduct of boron trichloride?

Which of the following is the most stable Lewis acid–base adduct? (a) $\ce{H2O\bond{->}BCl3}$ (b) $\ce{H2S\bond{->}BCl3}$ (c) $\ce{H3N\bond{->}BCl3}$ (d) $\ce{H3P\bond{->}BCl3}$ ...
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1answer
52 views

H0 value for fluoroantimonic acid

I am confused about $\mathrm{H_0}$ value of fluoroantimonic acid. Wikipedia says $\mathrm{-23<H_0<-21}$. Others say around $-31$. There's a huge gap. I won't worry for $3-4$ fluctuations but ...
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Gold/platinum + HF

I know that noble metals such as gold/platinum are unaffected by conc. mineral acids such as HCl or H2SO4 or HNO3 but Can be dissolved in aqua regia (mix of HCl and HNO3 in 3:1), but never heard about ...
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1answer
27 views

Regarding acid-base reactions, how does one know when a hydrophobic base substance is fully protonated?

When there's a weak base substance (hydrophobic powder), and it needs to be completely protonated by adding an acid (eg: HCl), how does one know when it's completely protonated? Since the powdered ...
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Comparing basicity of pyrrolidine and piperidine [duplicate]

How do we compare the basicity of pyrrolidine and piperidine? I think that ring strain is the only factor that can possibly affect it. The nitrogen being sp3 hybridised wants to have a bond angle of ...
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2answers
135 views

The intrinsic electron-withdrawing nature of alkyl groups

What you are about to read may be a very mind-boggling paragraph but please do not regard it as nonsense. Please think through it thoroughly. In Chapter 6 of Organic Chemistry (4th ed.) by Maitland ...
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Arranging these aromatic amines according to their basic character

The problem asks to arrange theses amines in an increasing order of their basic character. Clearly 2 is less basic than 1, because $NO_2$ is a strong $e^-$ withdrawing group and it is going to show ...
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36 views

Which is stronger ? Picric acid or phoshoric acid

I would like to have clarity as to which acid is the stronger acid; picric acid or phosphoric acid. Because different sources are giving me different answers
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1answer
253 views

How does Borax Solution act as a buffer? [closed]

What type of buffer is it? If it's a Weak Acid-Conjugate Base type of buffer, what is the weak acid and conjugate base?
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1answer
44 views

What is the driving force of this reaction?

I know that every reaction that occurs in a solution must have a driving force leading to the kicking out of some ions from the solution. These reactions include redox , double-displacements and acid/...
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1answer
66 views

Is there also a leveling effect for weak acids in water?

The leveling effect says that any acid stronger than the hydronium ion ($\ce{H3O+}$) will completely dissociate in water. Hence no differentiation of acid strength is possible between eg HBr and HCl ...
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1answer
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Chloroantimonic v/s fluoriantimonic

Does chloroantimonic acid exists like . If not , than why , what we get when we mix hydrochloric acid and antimonypentachloride and can we predict its acidic strength if it would ever be synthesized. ...
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Acid HClF6 and HIF6

I was wondering about $\ce{HClO4}$ which is a very strong acid . I thought it can be made stronger by replacing $\ce O$ with $\ce F$ to make $\ce{HClF6}$ but didn't find its existence . I thought that ...
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1answer
137 views

Why does a colour change in neutralisation occur? [closed]

An indicator shows whether an substance is a base or an acid but during a neutralisation reaction the colour change occurs due to the solution be neutral (i.e pH is 7). But since the indicators only ...
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2answers
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Acids of noble gases

Are there any other acids of noble gasses besides xenic acid? Why other ones seem to be very unstable (like perxenic), or completely unknown (acids of any other noble gases). Particularly are there ...
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1answer
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Do polyfluorosulfuric acids like H2SO2F4 exist?

I was thinking about a compound resembling $\ce{H2SO4}$ but more acidic. I thought to replace the 2 oxygens with 4 fluorine atoms getting $\ce{H2SO2F4}$, which might be more acidic. Does such a ...
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2answers
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Why is the concentration of protons equal to the concentration of a strong acid?

First, I know that strong acids are assumed to dissociate completely in water, so that the concentration of $\ce{H+}$ which they provide equals their concentration. What I am asking for is not the ...
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1answer
58 views

What's the reaction between H2SO4 and NaH2PO4?

I'm guessing it's going to be $$\ce{H2SO4 + 2 NaH2PO4 -> 2 H3PO4 + Na2SO4}$$ Could anyone please let me know what the actual reaction is? Thank you
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1answer
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Is acetic acid or d3-acetic acid more acidic?

Why is $\ce{CD3-COOH}$ more acidic than $\ce{CH3-COOH}$ despite being less electronegative? The book too said that $\ce{CD3} > \ce{CH3}$ in terms of + Inductive effect.
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Is cyclohexanol or hexanol more acidic?

If we had a hexane ring with an $\ce{OH}$ substituent vs. a hexane chain with an $\ce{OH}$ substituent, which of the two, if any, would result in a weaker conjugate base? My confusion: The ring ...
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Titration of Na2CO3 against HCl

$\pu{25mL}$ of $\pu{0.125M}$ $\ce{Na2CO3}$ is titrated with $\pu{0.100M}$ $\ce{HCl}$. Given that $K_{a1} = 4.3\times10^{-7}$ and $K_{a2} = 4.8\times10^{-11}$ for the diprotic acid $\ce{H2CO3}$, ...
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What makes Citrate or Citric Acid an acid?

As far as I know, an acid is something that gives off a proton or hydrogen ion $H^{+}$. But when I look at Citric Acid, There are three $COO^{-}$, which I think is a carboxyl group, that lacks $H^{+...
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Is sodium ion an acid?

As sodium ion has a 1+ charge and it can form the ionic compound NaOH with OH1-, hence it is a lone pair accepter (is this correct?). Therefore sodium ion should be an acid?
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2answers
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When an acid is added to water, why does the hydroxide ion concentration decrease?

At equilibrium in pure water, we have $$\ce{[H_3O+][OH-]} = 10^{-14}$$ Since $\ce{H3O+}$ and $\ce{OH-}$ ions are produced in pairs, we may conclude $$\ce{[H_3O+]}=\ce{[OH-]} = 10^{-7}$$ So far so ...
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1answer
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Would then base react with water? [closed]

Imagine you fill a tank with undecayed neutrons and water .Now neutrons will decay into proton and electrons. Assume that the wall of the container is so thick that it doesn't allow the protons to ...
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1answer
33 views

When reacting a strong acid with a weak base, would all of the strong acid react with the weak base

If I do the following reaction: $$\ce{Na3PO4 + 3HNO3 -> 3NaNO3 + H3PO4}$$ Does nitric acid completely react with the Trisodium phosphate to form a weak acid and a salt, or does it form a small ...
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1answer
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NaOH being added to Formic Acid (Please catch my error!)

I am adding 0.55 mL of 0.1M NaOH to 10 mL of 0.5M Formic Acid. Here are the values I calculated to use. Moles H+ : 0.5 * (10mL / 1000) = 0.005 mol Moles OH- : 0.1 * (.55mL / 1000) = 0.000055 mol ...
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Is the concentration of water included in the acid disscociation constant? - Wikipedia confuses me

I refer to the following wikipedia article https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acid_dissociation_constant Header paragraph: Equilibrium constant. First the equilibrium constant is given in terms of ...
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1answer
54 views

Substituent effects on acidity

It is said that 4-methylbenzoic acid will be a weaker acid than benzoic acid. 4-nitrobenzoic acid will be a stronger acid than benzoic acid. I don't understand why the methyl group on 4-...
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1answer
60 views

Is (Zn(OH)4)2- acidic or alkaline?

My chemistry teacher told me that $\ce{Al(OH)4^-}$, $\ce{Pb(OH)4^2-}$, $\ce{Zn(OH)4^2-}$ are called complex ions. So will they break down in some conditions and give out $\ce{OH-}$ to show alkaline ...
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0answers
119 views

Do bond lengths change upon protonation of a molecule such as an H2O molecule?

Wouldn't the hydrogen atom in a hydronium cation feel a greater proton repulsion force (nucleus-nucleus repulsions) from the oxygen atom and orient away from the oxygen atom to maximize the attractive ...
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1answer
70 views

Why don't buffer solutions return to equilibrium?

Suppose I want to make a buffer solution in any of the three ways possible with dihydrogen phosphate as my weak acid. In the first way, a certain ratio of the weak acid and its conjugate base are ...
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2answers
148 views

Basification of acid solution. pH calculation. How?

This is my first post. In order to understand basification I've created a pretty simple example as I currently understand it mainly because.. I really don't understand all of it. Example: ...
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1answer
39 views

neutralization of a strong acid with a strong base [closed]

When a 1M H2SO4 is mixed with an equal volume of 1M NaOH, is the mixture acidic, basic, or neutral?
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1answer
37 views

How do I calculate the amount of polyprotic acid and base needed to achieve a certain buffer pH?

e.g. Citric Acid and Trisodium Citrate $\ce{H3C6H5O7 <=>[ka_1] H2C6H5O7- + H+ <=>[ka_2] HC6H5O7^2- + H+ <=>[ka_3] C6H5O7^3- + H+}$ Using the definition of Ka and substituting for ...
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Is it necessary to write water as a reactant in the acid dissociation equilibrium?

If I wish to write out the acid dissociation equilibrium, is it necessary to write in the water as a reactant, or does it suffice to write the following? $$\ce{HA <=> H+ + A-}$$ Is it alright ...
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1answer
394 views

When using a “dilute hydrochloric acid” solution, how diluted should it be?

Quite often when reading through some instructions or documentation or an outline that I've found online (EG: acid-base extractions), theres a step that involves using a "dilute hydrochloric acid ...
3
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2answers
64 views

Comparing acidity between groups

I tried to do this using the stability of conjugate base. I can see (2) will be most stable due to resonance however my confusion lies in (1) and (3). While in (3), the negative charge is unstable but ...
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234 views

Does HCl evaporate at room temperature?

So my question is...lets say that somebody pours hcl (30%) in the toilet and on bathroom floor.Does the acid evaporate after a while it is it possible that it's still present after like month? Thank ...