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Questions tagged [acid-base]

This tag should be applied to questions concerning acid and base reactions. An acid is capable of donating a hydron/ proton (Brønsted acid) or capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (Lewis acid). A base on the other hand is a chemical species/ molecular entity having an available pair of electrons capable of forming a covalent bond with a hydron/ proton (Brønsted base) or with the vacant orbital of some other species (Lewis base).

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Does diluting the titration flask change the molarity

I was solving the following problem on a test and I thought the answer was A, but the answer is actually D. Below is the problem and my reasoning: Answer choice B is clearly incorrect because the ...
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2answers
23 views

Solubility and pH

I was reading about antacids. It stated that in earlier times $\ce{NaHCO3}$ and a mixture of aluminium and magnesium hydroxide were used as antacids. In excess $\ce{NaHCO3}$ can make the medium ...
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Conductivity of aqueous solutions

Which $\ce{0.10 M}$ aqueous solution exhibits the lowest electrical conductivity? A) $\ce{HC_2H_3O_2_{(aq)}}$ B) $\ce{HNO_3_{(aq)}}$ C) $\ce{NH_4C_2H_3O_2_{(aq)}}$ D) $\ce{Ca(...
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1answer
23 views

Is the equilibrium constant related to concentrations

In an acid-base reaction, let K be the equilibrium constant and t the equilibrium position. We learned that K is only affected by temperature, while t is affected by other factors including ...
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2answers
27 views

why is are weak acid-strong base and strong acid-weak base reactions irreversible?

In the case of both are strong, I can see why it's irreversible, because the acid is very willing to give a proton and the base is very willing to take one. Now here are my 2 main questions: 1-in the ...
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2answers
13k views

Ionization of amino acids

In my book it talks about amino acids. It says the general structure of an amino acid is as follows: However, on the next page it lists specific amino acids such as glycine shown here: My ...
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0answers
18 views

Contaminant aluminium(III) compounds in acidic soil [on hold]

I recently looked for aluminum source/contamination that migrates to agriculture soil. The toxic form of $\ce{Al}$ to plants is $\ce{Al^3+}$. Are there any of $\ce{Al}$-containing compounds (e.g. $\ce{...
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15 views

Acid-Base: calculating concentration when pH is given [on hold]

Something I don't understand in these questions is, for example when a pH is given and it is said that you should calculate the concentration of a NaOH solution, why is the concentration calculated ...
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0answers
27 views

Why are strong acid-base reactions irreversible? [on hold]

With the condition that at least one of the reactors is strong so (strong acid/weak base) or (weak acid/strong base) or (strong acid/strong base), how do we know that they're not reversible. Or in ...
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1answer
974 views

Acidic and alkaline salt solutions: why do some salt form acid/bases while others don't

I have a question regarding salts and their solutions. How come some salts, like sodium carbonate and ammonium chloride, produce acids/bases when dissolved in water? Moreover, how can you predict ...
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5answers
6k views

Decreasing order of basic strength

I need to find the decreasing basicity of the following compounds(I,II,III,IV respectively): I know that to compare the basic strengths, we need to find the stability of their conjugate acids ...
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1answer
5k views

Is carbon dioxide more acidic than carbon monoxide?

Which of the given compounds is most acidic? $\ce{CO}$ or $\ce{CO2}$ ? How do I solve this question, and how do I explain it? I took the oxidation state of carbon in both. The oxidation state in $\...
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1answer
38 views

Compound, Ascorbic acid: What implies the dotted line? [on hold]

What implies the two dotted lines? Why has the two carbon on the left side 3 free electrons? With C₆H₈O₆ not all carbon atom is connected. What is the topic which describes how to read and understand ...
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1answer
2k views

Is calcium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide more efficient at removing carbon dioxide?

In biology, we commonly use $\ce{KOH}$ in respirometers to remove carbon dioxide. A common test in chemistry to detect the presence of carbon dioxide is to bubble it through limewater, turning it ...
3
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2answers
668 views

Betaine HCl stomach pH

It seems betaine HCL is often recommended for those suffering from "low stomach acid" -- which, as I understand, is having too high stomach pH for proper digestion (especially for proteolysis via ...
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0answers
42 views

Pale blue species forming during electrolysis of NaHCO3

I have a solution of 3500 ml $\ce{H2O}$ + 454 g $\ce{NaHCO3}$ in electrolysis at a potential of 12.5V using a lead anode and copper cathode. The surface areas aren't measured but they are enormous. I ...
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1answer
26k views

Will monosodium dihydrogen phosphate react as base or acid in water?

Will $\ce{NaH2PO4}$ react as as an acid or a base if you make it react with water? I got stuck here. I can figure out the reaction: $$\ce{NaH2PO4 + H2O -> Na^+ + H2PO4^- + H2O}$$ But when I look ...
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0answers
21 views

Buffer Capacity Equation

Whilst doing buffer capacity, my lecturer presented us with the following equation for buffer capacity: $${log(\frac{[salt] + x}{[acid] - x})} = 1$$ A task set by the lecturer is to rearrange the ...
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0answers
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How much Sodium Bicarbonate (NaHCO3) do I need to add to specific volume of water to increase the pH by specific amount? [closed]

I'm trying to increase the pH of a nutrient solution for algae I'm attempting to grow. I suspect that my algae will grow at a higher pH than contaminants. I want to raise the pH of a container of ...
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0answers
14 views

How do I make a 0.5 M citrate buffer at pH 4.5?

I need to make a citrate-sodium citrate buffer at 0.5 M concentration and pH 4.5. I calculated the molarities of the citrate and disodium citrate based on the Henderson Hasselbalch equation, using a ...
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2answers
1k views

Hydrogen bonding relating to molecular orbital theory

In [1, p. 232] here is an explanation of how alcohols hydrogen bond to each other and I do understand how the alcohols form hydrogen bonds to each other: FIGURE 6.15 Water and alcohols are ...
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1answer
22 views

Acid value of linseed oil

For this we weigh $\pu{1.015 g}$ of linseed oil which is dissolved in alcohol. 3 drops of phenolphthalein (pH indicator) are added and a solution of potassium hydroxide of concentration $C = \pu{9.5e-...
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0answers
118 views

Sulfuric hydrofluoric acid? [duplicate]

Comment on https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hxh92s5mIho showing it is the effect of sulfuric hydrofluoric acid.. Is it a effect of sulfuric hydrofluoric acid?
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2answers
151 views

How can benzaldehyde have a pKa of 14.9?

There are numerous websites out there which claim that the pKa of benzaldehyde – C6H5CHO – is 14.90. (Just do a Google search for benzaldehyde pka to see what I ...
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0answers
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Confusion about prioritizing functional groups in case of poly functional organic compounds

According to Wikipedia, sulfonic acid $(\ce{-SO3H})$ is comparatively stronger than carboxylic acid $(\ce{-COOH})$. Then why is sulfonic acid lower in priority than carboxylic acid (while naming poly ...
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0answers
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Acid medium versus Basic medium characteristics in organic reactions [closed]

I am kind new in the study of organic reactions and I have collected some points to write differences between acid medium and basic medium: Acid medium 1)favors strong oxizidation 2)favors ...
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1answer
36 views

Acidic, Basic, and Neutral Medium

So I'm new to this concept and I can't find any proper explanation to this. What does it mean for a reaction to occur in an acidic, basic, or neutral medium?
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1answer
28 views

Can an iodine clock reaction work without using a strong acid?

I'm going to do an iodine clock reaction for a project and we had to submit the materials and safety sheets for the experiment a while ago. I thought I could do one by using hydrogen peroxide, sodium ...
8
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1answer
3k views

How do cloves break down plastic?

When my family buys powdered cloves in bulk, we put them in plastic until we get home - which takes at very most an hour. As soon as we get home, we transfer them into glass because we have had issues ...
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0answers
16 views

Oxidation of a metal by an inorganic acid [closed]

What is the effect of particule size and temperature on the reaction of a metal and an inorganic acid? I need it for a paper that I have to hand in but I cannot find the answer anywhere and I haven't ...
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1answer
27 views

pH of very dilute acids

From doing some research on the site I have found that many people have posted about solutions of $\ce {HCl}$ where $\ce {[HCl]=10^{-8} mol dm^{-3}}$ Here they are able to deduce $$\ce{[H^+] =\frac{[...
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2answers
44 views

Calculating dissociation degree from pH and Ka without given initial acid concentration

Is it possible to calculate the dissociation degree (DD) from pH and Ka without directly been given the initial acid concentration? I found the following formula: $$\text{DD} = \frac{K_\mathrm{a}}{...
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0answers
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Why do some cations and anions interact with water to form corrresponding acids and bases(hydrolysis)? [duplicate]

I have seen in my textbook that on cations/anions formed on ionization of salts either exist as hydrated salts in aqueous solutions or interact with water to reform corresponding acids/bases depending ...
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1answer
21k views

Is Sulfuric hydrofluoric acid a real thing? [closed]

I saw a video on social media of a person disappearing into air when exposed to Sulfuric hydrofluoric acid vapours. I don't have much knowledge in chemistry. Is this possible combination.
3
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1answer
486 views

Calculating the pH of a ammonium hydrogen sulfate solution

I am attempting to complete a question in which I need to use an ICE table to calculate the pH of a $\pu{2.61 mol L-1}$ $\ce{NH4HSO4}$ (ammonium hydrogen sulfate) solution. When $\ce{NH4HSO4}$ ...
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2answers
64 views

Which of the following is the most acidic salt?

A 0.1 M solution of which salt is most acidic? (a) Aluminum(III) nitrate $\ce{Al(NO3)3}$; (b) Magnesium(II) bromide $\ce{MgBr2}$; (c) Sodium bicarbonate $\ce{NaHCO3}$; (d) Sodium formate $\...
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1answer
39 views

What are good examples of questions that make college students think about chemistry concepts? [closed]

I am teaching the second semester of general chemistry at the college level. The course tends to get bogged down in calculations, and sometimes we forget about the big picture and what is going on at ...
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2answers
8k views

Why is CF3COOH exceptionally acidic?

The pKa values of almost all carboxylic acids lie much above 0. But this is violated by trifluoroacetic acid(-0.25). How can this be justified?
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2answers
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How to Prepare a Buffer Solution?

Problem I am given the task of preparing three buffer solutions at pH 10, 9.5, and 9.0. I have available concentrated ammonia and 3M hydrochloric acid. Attempt at Solving By adding HCl to a ...
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1answer
1k views

How does the size of a molecule affect acidity?

Today I learned that $\ce{H2S}$ is more acidic than $\ce{H2O}$ because $\ce{H2S}$ has a larger molecule size. But $\ce{Fe^3+}$ is more acidic than $\ce{Fe^2+}$ and $\ce{Fe^3+}$ is smaller than $\ce{Fe^...
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0answers
28 views

What is the maximum concentration of HNO3 (nitric acid) which may be handled outside of a hood?

Commercial stock solutions of HNO3 (nitric acid) are usually 70% w/w, and according to several MSDSs (e.g. here), it is dangerous to inhale it: Symptoms/effects after inhalation : Irritation ...
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1answer
109 views

Using thermodynamics to predict the acid-base character of fluoride ion in water

I was working through the end-of-chapter exercises of the acid-base chapter in Shriver's Inorganic Chemistry when I came across the following problem: 4.7. The effective proton affinity $\ce{A^{'}_{...
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1answer
332 views

What is the pKa of iodous acid?

Searching the web readily gives the $\mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a}$ of hydroiodic acid, hypoiodous acid, and iodic acid, however, extensive searching did not result in any value of the $\mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a}...
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0answers
35 views

Nucleophile vs base and Electrophile vs acid [closed]

How we will figure out that a given compound will behave as nucleophile or base ? Same problem for electrophile and acid. By the way I have already seen a similar question though I didn't find it ...
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2answers
3k views

Inductive effects of halogens

The wikipedia page on Inductive effects state that the order of inductive effects of halogens is as follows. -F>-Cl>-Br>-I From this, and from the fact that electronegativity of Fluorine is higher ...
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1answer
2k views

Volume of dibasic acid required to neutralise 0.04 mole of OH-

The volume of 0.1 N dibasic acid sufficient to neutralize 1 g of a base that furnishes 0.04 mole of OH− in aqueous solution is: 200 mL 400 mL 600 mL 800 mL Since it is a ...
2
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1answer
55 views

“Don't pour oil into lye, pour lye into oil”

I was making soap last weekend and I got distracted, and thence I put too much lye into my oils blend. Basically, the whole soap paste is unusable to make soap because the cure will never be enough to ...
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4answers
1k views

Can water be a Lewis acid?

I asked this question to my teacher a few days ago. In a reaction such as $$\ce{NH3 + H2O -> NH4+ + OH-},$$ $\ce{NH3}$ is a Lewis base, but is $\ce{H2O}$ a Lewis acid? He said that it isn't. Now ...
15
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1answer
3k views

Determining the pH of an organic solvent

Our work is faced with the issue of determining the charge of compounds that are dissolved in chloroform. One could realistically determine the charge of the relevant moieties knowing the $\mathrm{p}...
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1answer
53 views

Changes in pH when adding substances other than acids or bases

If I start out with 100 mM acetic acid, what substance (to a final concentration of 1 M) could I add to change the pH considerably? I was thinking of NaCl or ethanol or acetone. Substances added ...