Questions tagged [acid-base]

This tag should be applied to questions concerning acid and base reactions. An acid is capable of donating a hydron/ proton (Brønsted acid) or capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (Lewis acid). A base on the other hand is a chemical species/ molecular entity having an available pair of electrons capable of forming a covalent bond with a hydron/ proton (Brønsted base) or with the vacant orbital of some other species (Lewis base).

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16 views

Speeding up the rusting/oxidation process of various metals using ferric chloride? [on hold]

So I have ferric chloride etching solution here is the datasheet for the product I have: https://download.altronics.com.au/files/datasheets_H0800D.pdf I have 4 types of metal; stainless steel metal, ...
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1answer
29 views

What is the formula for theoretical buffer capacity for a diprotic buffer system?

According to Chembuddy, the formula for theoretical buffer capacity for a monoprotic buffer system is as follows: $$β = 2.303\left(\frac{K_\mathrm{w}}{[\ce{H+}]} + [\ce{H+}] + \frac{C_\mathrm{buf}...
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1answer
185 views

How to make aluminium monostearate?

Can I make aluminium monostearate $(\ce{C18H37AlO4};$ $\pu{344.472 g mol-1})$ by reaction between stearic acid $(\ce{C18H36O2};$ $\pu{284.484 g mol-1})$ and aluminium hydroxide $(\ce{Al(OH)3};$ $\pu{...
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1answer
34 views

How to predict whether a salt will act as an acid or as a base in aqueous medium?

How to would we know if a salt such as $\ce{CO_2}$ reacts acidic or basic in water. The explanation I see everywhere is that you have to see the acid and base that makes up the salt, in the case of $\...
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22 views

Acidify H2O with CO2 [on hold]

How many liters of $\ce{CO2}$ per liter of $\ce{H2O}$ are required to reduce the pH of water from 7.8 to 5.8? I am looking into using $\ce{CO2}$ injection as an alternative to acidify my water with ...
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1answer
49 views

How does sodium carbonate reduce pH?

Sodium carbonate is used in pools to raise pH. From my understanding, it would dissociate in water like so: $$\ce{Na2CO3 <=> 2 Na+ + CO3^2-}$$ To raise pH, doesn't it have to absorb hydrogen ...
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13 views

Why does the hydride ion in LAH act as a nucleophile rather than a base in the reduction of carbonyl compounds? [duplicate]

Why does the $\ce{H-}$ ion in $\ce{LiAlH4}$ act as a nucleophile rather than a base in the reduction of carbonyl compounds ?? Because $\ce{H-}$ being a small ion would act as a better base than a ...
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3k views

Is an acid a salt or not?

In our office, we discussed today what the exact definition of a salt is and whether an acid itself can be classified as a salt. Our first problem was that we couldn't get a definitive definition for ...
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20 views

The effect of lactose monohydrate on acid-base extraction of tolterodine tartrate

I am doing an organic chemistry project for school in the form of an acid-base extraction of tolterodine tartrate (Detrol) in ammonium hydroxide (or sodium hydroxide, haven't decided yet) and ...
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1answer
41 views

Boiling chips for concentrating sulfuric acid

I am concentrating sulphuric acid. What should I use as boiling chips? I have tried broken mug pieces, the solution became cloudy, and I have tried broken glass (retrieved from a drinking class, not ...
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1answer
23 views

Why do I need H20/H+ for nucleophilic attach by grignard reagent? [on hold]

In solving the below reaction, I am confused as to why H2O/H+ is needed when using a grignard reagent as a nucleophile..... Wouldn't the MgBr dissociate from the Alkane when dropped in a solvent and ...
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1answer
2k views

How to calculate pH of the Na2CO3 solution given ambiguous Ka values

This is the exact question I faced on an exam. Calculate the pH of $\pu{0.05 M}\ \ce{Na2CO3}\ (\ce{H2CO3}: K_\mathrm{a,1}= 4\times 10^{-7},\ K_\mathrm{a,2}= 4.7\times 10^{-11})$ Solution $$\ce{...
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0answers
35 views

How to derive the conductivity titration curve which accounts for salt formation

I derived an equation that gave me the volume of base required to get a certain pH: In a titration between a weak acid $\ce{HA}$ and weak base $\ce{B}$ (adding base into acid solution) the following ...
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30 views

Find pH and concentrations of bicarbonate and carbonate in the rain droplet

The concentration of hydrogen ions in a rain droplet is $\pu{0.000141 M}.$ Calculate the $\mathrm{pH},$ the concentration of both bicarbonate and carbonate in the rain droplet by assuming that the ...
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23 views

sparkling whiteish water from kitchen tap [on hold]

My shower drainage was clogged, so after trying mechanically I went to the shop for a liquid to unclog it (sorry im not an english speaker). This liquid contains 5 - 15% phosphoric acid and 85% ...
6
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2answers
665 views

How to calculate the concentration of conjugate acid from given pH and pKa values?

Preface: Buffer solution (acid-base buffer). I am provided with a weak base, which I will designate B. $\mathrm{p}K_\mathrm{a}$ for $\ce{B}$'s conjugate acid, which I will designate $\ce{BH}$, is $8.1$...
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1answer
97 views

pH of very dilute acids

From doing some research on the site I have found that many people have posted about solutions of $\ce{HCl}$ where $[\ce{HCl}] = \pu{1e-8 mol dm-3}$ Here they are able to deduce $$[\ce{H+}] = \frac{[...
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1answer
99 views

Is omega 3 a specific fatty acid?

Is eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) omega 3 or that's just a acid that comes with a omega 3? Same question for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Just want to know are both of those two acid omega 3 despite ...
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0answers
17 views

difference between buffered oxide etch (BOE) and ammonium bifluoride (NH4HF2)

i've been reading about etching quartz wafers and I have come across NH4HF2 (ammonium bifluoride), which I thought was just a buffered oxide etch. But it seems they are chemically different. Could ...
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1answer
40 views

Acid solution — lower pH when diluted

Today I came across a "thought experiment" regarding $\mathrm{pH}$ of a diluted acid solution. This idea looks somewhat logical but obviously contradicts the reality. Can you show me where is the ...
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0answers
36 views

What is the pH of a solution of iron acetate?

What is the pH of a $\ce{0.1 M}$ solution of $\ce{Fe(CH_3COO)_3}$? I'm not sure how to do this, as it would involve complicated mass balance equations, but I think I can apply the approximation $\ce{...
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0answers
17 views

Does double ended fatty acid exist? [duplicate]

A fatty acid consists of a carbon chain, with a carboxylic acid on one end, and just a hydrogen on the other. Does a substance with two carboxylic acid ends and no hydrogen end exist?
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1answer
380 views

Writing Mass Balance Equations

I was curious if there is a specific reason why when writing mass balance reactions we always leave a $\ce{H+}$ on the left side of the equation as the professor did not explain so, or is it just ...
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1answer
33 views

What does pH of NH3 solution refers to?

I was introduced with an exercise which asks to find $K_\mathrm{b}$ of $\ce{NH3}$ when the $\mathrm{pH}$ of $\ce{NH3}$ solution with concentration $M_1$. Well, in order to solve it, I used the fact ...
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2answers
132 views

How pure gold is obtained back from dissolved state in Aqua regia?

I know Aqua regia is used for purifying gold by dissolving gold in it, but how that dissolved gold is obtained back in the pure state? I searched everywhere, but I didn't get the answer. So, I am ...
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1answer
62 views

Basicity of anions

Which one of the following is strongest base? A. $\ce{Cl-}$ B. $\ce{Br-}$ C. $\ce{I-}$ D. $\ce{CH3COO-}$ Someone please tell me the answer with proper reason. First I thought that it's $\...
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0answers
11 views

Are acid-base reactions always mediated by hydronium- and hydroxy-ions in aqueous solution?

If an acid and a base are disolved in water the reaction can be written as: H2SO4 + NH3 -> HSO4- + NH4+ On the other hand we can also consider: H2SO4 + H2O -> HSO4- + H3O+ and: NH3 + H2O -> NH4+ ...
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3answers
2k views

Chilling water in copper vessel

Does chilling drinking water in copper bottle result in any chemical reaction that turns it dangerous for consumption in any way? Few days back, in summer, I carried kokum juice in copper bottle. I ...
4
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1answer
169 views

Using acidic detergents

If detergents were acidic rather than basic, can we still achieve a clean surface? What would be more effective? Strong acid or a weak acid? How would the result of cleaning be different if an acid ...
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1answer
39 views

Reverse washing soda buildup on stainless steel

In a home brewing project, I use washing soda (Na2CO3) to remove labels and glue from previously used bottles. In doing this, my flip-top bottles (which have a stainless steel flip top arm) often get ...
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3answers
63 views

Doubt on process to calculate pKa [closed]

I have to solve an exercise that I've been trying for a long time without success. Information that I have: pH @ certain temperature of an aqueous dissolution of an acid molar concentration ...
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1answer
37 views

How do I calculate for the solubility of Ca3(PO4)2 in Phosphoric Acid?

I know that the common ion effect will decrease the solubility of $\ce{Ca3(PO4)2}$ since Phosphoric acid has a same anion. However, phosphoric acid is a weak acid so I am really having a hard time ...
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3answers
7k views

How can the equilibrium shift, while Kc remains constant?

Consider the following reversible reaction. $$\ce{Cr2O7^2-(aq) + H2O(l) <=> 2 CrO4^2-(aq) + 2 H+(aq)}$$ What will happen to the position of equilibrium and the value of $K_c$ when more ...
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2answers
68 views

Density and concentration of hydroiodic acid [closed]

I weighted my hydroiodic acid sample: 25 ml weight 34.1 g, so the density is about 1.364 g/ml. I want to know its concentration based on density. Does anyone have the corresponding density chart?
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1answer
2k views

Calculating the pH upon titrating barium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid

Question: Calculate the pH produced from mixing $\pu{25.0 mL}$ of $\pu{0.420 M} $ $\ce{Ba(OH)_2}$ with $\pu{125 mL}$ of $\pu{0.120 M}$ $\ce{ HCl}$. Attempt: I'm learning about acids and bases ...
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1answer
34 views

What chemical can be used for getting rid of hard water spots on cars?

Most water spot removers available on Amazon or automotive stores are just fine abrasives which remove a small amount of your car's clearcoat every time you use them. I'm looking for a chemical which ...
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0answers
18 views

Equivalents Triethylamine in Swern-oxidation

Hey folks, so I've been wondering why the use of 5 equivalents of Et3N in this case of a Swern-oxidation is necessary. I have done this reaction succesfully quite a few times now, but all the ...
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34 views

Using concentrated sulfuric or nitric acid during titration of permanganate with oxalic acid

During titration of $\ce{KMnO4}$ with $\ce{H2C2O4}$, can we use concentrated $\ce{H2SO4}$ or $\ce{HNO3}$ instead of bench sulfuric acid?
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2answers
7k views

Mixing hydrochloric acid and sulphuric acid, both concentrated

In the chemistry lab, I stupidly decided to mix hydrochloric acid and sulphuric acid, both concentrated, in a random ratio, which was about $\pu{50 ml}$. When I poured them in one test tube, the ...
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1answer
52 views

pH of an acetate buffer after dilution

100 mL of a 0.1 mM buffer solution made from acetic acid and sodium acetate with pH 5.0 is diluted to 1 L. What is the pH of the diluted solution? The pKa value for acetic acid is given as 4.75. The ...
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1answer
35 views

Will using vinegar harm car paint?

After having parked my car in a newly constructed airport parking garage, I came back to find something had dripped through a crack in the ceiling of the structure and left considerably thick film on ...
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1answer
120 views

How do I make a 0.5 M citrate buffer at pH 4.5?

I need to make a citrate-sodium citrate buffer at 0.5 M concentration and pH 4.5. I calculated the molarities of the citrate and disodium citrate based on the Henderson Hasselbalch equation, using a p�...
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2answers
16k views

Dissociation of HCl in aqueous solution

My question is regarding $\ce{HCl}$. In my book it states that: $$\ce{HCl (aq) -> H+ (aq) + Cl- (aq)}$$ I understand that when added to water the $\ce{H}$ leaves its electron to the $\ce{Cl}$ ...
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0answers
20 views

How do you purify phosphoric acid from cheap commercial (hardware-store) products?

I am looking for idea's on how to purify phosphoric acid for lab use, as the the price for reagent grade V's home-use ended with me buying a product designed as a rust-killer for steel... The ...
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3answers
4k views

Order of Basicity of Nitrogen Trihalides

I was asked to arrange nitrogen tri-halides in order of increasing basicity. On looking up the answer online, it turned out to be the following: $\ce{NF3}$ < $\ce{NCl3}$ < $\ce{NBr3}$ < $\ce{...
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1answer
51 views

Acid etching of float glass

While we have done some etching of glass with hydrofluoric acid alone, to achieve a matte white finish on float glass, I am curious to know what formula and procedure is required to create a more ...
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0answers
97 views

Is there a reliable chemical theory that predicts pKa based on structure?

Obviously, there are general stability arguments that can be made to estimate relative pKas, such as evaluating the stability of the conjugate base of an acid, or thinking about how polarized the bond ...
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0answers
41 views

Will silicon dioxide react with hydrochloric acid?

I have the following equation, based on the reaction of $\ce{SiO2}$ with $\ce{HF}:$ $$\ce{SiO2 + HCl -> SiCl4 + 2 H2O}$$ I want to know if this reaction is indeed feasible, what conditions may be ...
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36 views

Is phosphoric acid is strong acid or weak acid? [duplicate]

Is phosphoric acid is strong acid or weak acid? I read in a book that basicity of Phosphoric acid $\ce{H3PO4}$ is $3$, but besides that it says phosphoric acid is a weak acid. this confuses me. if ...
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1answer
63 views

Titration of barium(II) hydroxide by hydrochloric acid

$\pu{25 ml}$ of $\pu{0.024 M}$ $\ce{HCl}$ is titrated into a volumetric flask which initially contains $\pu{45 ml}$ of $\pu{0.034 M}$ $\ce{Ba(OH)2}$. Calculate the $\mathrm{pH}$. This is how I ...