12 questions linked to/from What is the inert pair effect?
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### Inert Pair Effect [duplicate]

My notes say that inert pair effect is the tendency of electron in the outermost atomic s orbital to remain unionised or unshared in compounds of post-transition metals. (Eg. Sncl2 is formed ...
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### Why is the 2s orbital lower in energy than the 2p orbital when the electrons in 2s are usually farther from the nucleus?

My chemistry book explains that even though electrons in the $\mathrm{2p}$ orbital are closer to the nucleus on average, electrons from the $\mathrm{2s}$ orbital spend a very short time very close to ...
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### Why does radium have a higher first ionisation energy than barium?

I'm wondering why radium appears to buck the general trend that first ionisation energies decrease as you move down a group in the periodic table: barium (the group 2 element preceding it) has a first ...
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### Why does Pb normally have an oxidation number of +2?

Why does $\ce{Pb}$ have an oxidation number of $2^{+}$ while carbon and other elements in the same group have an oxidation number of $4^{+}$? Furthermore, why doesn't carbon also have a $2^{+}$ ...
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### Why is PbCl₄ covalent?

My answer: The inert pair effect in $\ce{Pb}$ causes it to pull back the electrons, resulting in polarisation. My teacher's answer: An ionisation state of $+4$ is too difficult to achieve, and it is ...
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### What is the hybridization state of E (= Sn, C) in ECl₂?

What is the hybridization state of tin in tin(II) chloride, $\ce{SnCl2}$, and is the explanation similar for dichlorocarbene, $\ce{CCl2}$? For $\ce{SnCl2}$, I read in my book that it is sp² but I am ...
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### Why does Bismuth only create a +3 ion instead of a +5 ion?

It has 5 valence electrons, but only loses 3 of them to make a +3 ion. Why does this occur? I believe it may have something to do with how losing 3 electrons leaves you with the p sublevel full, but ...
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### Hydrolysis products of chlorides of group 15

$\ce{NCl3}$ on hydrolysis produces $\ce{NH4OH}$ and $\ce{HOCl}$. $\ce{PCl_3}$ when hydrolyzed produces $\ce{P(OH)3}$ i.e. $\ce{H3PO3}$. $\ce{AsCl_3}$ when hydrolyzed produces $\ce{As(OH)3}$. ...
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### lanthanide contraction

"The Lanthanide Contraction refers to the fact that the 5s and 5p orbitals penetrate the 4f sub-shell so the 4f orbital is not shielded from the increasing nuclear change." First, 5s and 5p are ...
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### Confusion in the line written in my book

In my class 11 chemistry NCERT book ,there is a line in chapter P-block. The line is The oxidation state two unit less than the group oxidaton state become progressively more stable for heavier ...
The $\ce{[PbCl4]^{2-}}$ complex ion is formed when $\ce{PbCl2}$ is exposed to excess $Cl^-$ ions in solution as explained here and here through the following reversible reaction: \ce{PbCl2(s) + 2Cl^-...