Linked Questions

3 votes
0 answers
126 views

Inert Pair Effect [duplicate]

My notes say that inert pair effect is the tendency of electron in the outermost atomic s orbital to remain unionised or unshared in compounds of post-transition metals. (Eg. Sncl2 is formed ...
Kim Mijin's user avatar
96 votes
7 answers
139k views

Why is the 2s orbital lower in energy than the 2p orbital when the electrons in 2s are usually farther from the nucleus?

My chemistry book explains that even though electrons in the $\mathrm{2p}$ orbital are closer to the nucleus on average, electrons from the $\mathrm{2s}$ orbital spend a very short time very close to ...
Gordon Gustafson's user avatar
25 votes
5 answers
19k views

Why does radium have a higher first ionisation energy than barium?

I'm wondering why radium appears to buck the general trend that first ionisation energies decrease as you move down a group in the periodic table: barium (the group 2 element preceding it) has a first ...
Alicia Butteriss's user avatar
2 votes
3 answers
27k views

Why does Pb normally have an oxidation number of +2?

Why does $\ce{Pb}$ have an oxidation number of $2^{+}$ while carbon and other elements in the same group have an oxidation number of $4^{+}$? Furthermore, why doesn't carbon also have a $2^{+}$ ...
1110101001's user avatar
  • 3,226
4 votes
3 answers
2k views

Why is PbCl₄ covalent?

My answer: The inert pair effect in $\ce{Pb}$ causes it to pull back the electrons, resulting in polarisation. My teacher's answer: An ionisation state of $+4$ is too difficult to achieve, and it is ...
Saurabh Raje's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
5k views

Why does Bismuth only create a +3 ion instead of a +5 ion?

It has 5 valence electrons, but only loses 3 of them to make a +3 ion. Why does this occur? I believe it may have something to do with how losing 3 electrons leaves you with the p sublevel full, but ...
Erisin's user avatar
  • 63
4 votes
2 answers
9k views

What is the hybridization state of E (= Sn, C) in ECl₂?

What is the hybridization state of tin in tin(II) chloride, $\ce{SnCl2}$, and is the explanation similar for dichlorocarbene, $\ce{CCl2}$? For $\ce{SnCl2}$, I read in my book that it is sp² but I am ...
Tyrion Lannister's user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
6k views

Hydrolysis products of chlorides of group 15

$\ce{NCl3}$ on hydrolysis produces $\ce{NH4OH}$ and $\ce{HOCl}$. $\ce{PCl_3}$ when hydrolyzed produces $\ce{P(OH)3}$ i.e. $\ce{H3PO3}$. $\ce{AsCl_3}$ when hydrolyzed produces $\ce{As(OH)3}$. ...
user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
5k views

lanthanide contraction

"The Lanthanide Contraction refers to the fact that the 5s and 5p orbitals penetrate the 4f sub-shell so the 4f orbital is not shielded from the increasing nuclear change." First, 5s and 5p are ...
user40003's user avatar
  • 451
-4 votes
1 answer
2k views

Confusion in the line written in my book [closed]

In my class 11 chemistry NCERT book ,there is a line in chapter P-block. The line is The oxidation state two unit less than the group oxidaton state become progressively more stable for heavier ...
hey's user avatar
  • 195
2 votes
0 answers
1k views

Describe the formation of the [PbCl4]2- complex ion

The $\ce{[PbCl4]^{2-}}$ complex ion is formed when $\ce{PbCl2}$ is exposed to excess $Cl^-$ ions in solution as explained here and here through the following reversible reaction: $$\ce{PbCl2(s) + 2Cl^-...
JulianS's user avatar
  • 101
1 vote
0 answers
1k views

Why are the melting points of Sb and Bi lower than that of As?

My book says it has something to do with the inert pair effect. And unlike As, Sb and Bi tend to form 3 covalent bonds rather than 5. I don't understand what's really going on here.
Anindya's user avatar
  • 233