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### Why is up spin in the px orbital and down spin in the py orbital considered an excited state? [duplicate]

Why is this form of p orbital occupation an excited state? I understand that there should be one up spin and one down spin in one orbital box by Pauli's exclusion rule. But in the p orbitals, it doesn'...
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### What is the exchange interaction?

As the wikipedia article for the exchange interaction so aptly notes, exchange "has no classical analogue." How wonderful. Exchange shows up essentially while enforcing the condition that two ...
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### Volume of orbitals

As I was learning about atomic structure, the lecturer made a seemingly dubious claim: The volume of a p orbital is one-third that of the s orbital. Thus, inter-electronic repulsions are ...