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In case of ionic solvent the ionic solute dissolve in it because due to polar nature of water it break the bond between the ions through hydration energy and the ionic solvent dissolve in it. So I want to ask that for what reason the non polar solute dissolve in non polar solvent ? Means a basic framework like due to what reason it happens? I searched on Google but I don't get slim and articles or content


marked as duplicate by Mithoron, a-cyclohexane-molecule, Gaurang Tandon, Jon Custer, aventurin Jun 25 '18 at 16:27

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    $\begingroup$ This is something to look up in a basic chemistry textbook, not by googling, especially not for scientific articles. If you haven't got a textbook, try wikipedia? $\endgroup$ – Karl Jun 24 '18 at 11:03
  • $\begingroup$ @Karl my friend can you please copy the content from where you get it and post in comment $\endgroup$ – Mohit Jun 24 '18 at 15:15
  • $\begingroup$ That's your homework, sorry. Your question already contains a number of helpful terms to look up. $\endgroup$ – Karl Jun 24 '18 at 18:05

The simple answer is entropy. The explanation not so much. If you consider solvation (a specific type of dissolving) to really be a melting process you can consider the resulting solution a eutectic/peritectic mixture.

To explain Figure 1 is the phase diagram of tin-lead compounds. You could consider tin to be soluble in lead since at $300^\circ C$ lead is liquid and tin is solid but when tin is added to lead, it dissolves. Or you could consider the mixture of the two to be a eutectic that lowers the finally melting temperature of both substances to $183^\circ C$ (at 61.9 wt% lead) which is commonly the case. In fact if you were to make a phase diagram for any solute and solvent you would see similar behaviour.

Now sometimes the solvent forms a solid complex such as $\ce{CaCl2 *6H2O}$ which casuses a discontinuity. in Figure 2, point A is a eutectic point but points B and C are peritectic which is a result of the solid phase having a different equillibrium complex ($\ce{CaCl2*6H2O}$ vs. $\ce{CaCl2*4H2O}$.

That was some concept now for some math. The entropy of mixing can be determined for a solution by: $\Delta S_{mix} = -R[x_a ln(x_a) + x_b ln(x_b)] $ where $x_a$ and $x_b$ are the molar ratios of the components
($x_a = 1 - x_b$). Since $\Delta S_{mix}$ is always positive, $\Delta G_{mix}$ will always be negative as long as the heat of mixing ($\Delta H_{mix}$) is not too positive.

Figure 1: Eutectic Mixture Example: enter image description here

Figure 2: Peritectic Example: enter image description here


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