How is the bond length between any two atoms in a compound measured?

For example, in the case of graphite, the bond between its two layers is 340 pm. This number must have been measured, so what are experiments that can give lengths with that precision?

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    $\begingroup$ Xray crystallography is the most general method, but infra-red and Raman rotational spectroscopy has also been used for smaller molecules. There are some specialised NMR techniques that also measure distance but these are not routinely used as far as I am aware. $\endgroup$ – porphyrin Jun 24 '18 at 9:47
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    $\begingroup$ This is something to look up in a basic chemistry textbook, not by googling, especially not for scientific articles. If you haven't got a textbook, try wikipedia? $\endgroup$ – Karl Jun 24 '18 at 11:04
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    $\begingroup$ Possible duplicate of Has anyone even taken a picture of a molecule to confirm the geometry predicted by theory? $\endgroup$ – Mithoron Jun 24 '18 at 20:03
  • $\begingroup$ Transmission electron microscopy is one method of imaging atoms "directly". $\endgroup$ – A.K. Jun 25 '18 at 3:06
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    $\begingroup$ The possible duplicate question is not useful, but the answers are slightly more useful. A good answer here would give much more detail than any of those answers. $\endgroup$ – pentavalentcarbon Jun 26 '18 at 18:28

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