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If one of them is an aqueous solution, in this case hydrochloric acid, why doesn't it have a different chemical formula ? How would I explain the reaction between hydrogen and chlorine without the use of water to make it acidic ?

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Hydrochloric acid is an aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride.

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You better know that the main difference is the state they are in. Hcl(g) is obtained without water, and it is highly corrosive-it even reacts with water vapor in the air. I don't know why they do have the same name.:)

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