I want to make amonium perchlorate, having amonium chlorate. If I have a solution of sodium chlorate and I add amonium chlorate, will precipitate into amonium perchlorate? Or it is with a solution of sodium perchlorate?

  • 5
    $\begingroup$ Chlorate won't magically transform to perchlorate. $\endgroup$ – Ivan Neretin Apr 9 '18 at 8:33
  • 3
    $\begingroup$ > having amonium chlorate | And you are still in one piece? How that? $\endgroup$ – permeakra Apr 9 '18 at 8:52
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    $\begingroup$ Ammonium chlorate becomes nonexplosive when "ammonium" is spelled with only two rather than three "m"s. -1. $\endgroup$ – Oscar Lanzi Apr 9 '18 at 11:10
  • $\begingroup$ Why would you want the sodium perchlorate? $\endgroup$ – David Wyn Williams Apr 9 '18 at 12:13

Note: Ammonium chlorate is a unstable oxidizers and decomposes violently. Handle with care. Ammonium perchlorate is also known for its toxicity. You should have enough laboaratory experience for handling such chemicals.

If you think that

$$\ce{chlorate + chlorate -> perchlorate}$$

then you are wrong. There is no common ion effect occuring. You will need a perchlorate salt and an ammonium salt that have a displacement reaction and precipitate ammonium perchlorate. This reaction will suffice

$$\ce{MClO4 + NH4Cl -> NH4ClO4 + MCl ~~~~~~~~~~~ M = Na,K}$$

Or even electrolysis of a perchlorate salt. According to this patent:

  1. Ammonium perchlorate is generally produced by a series of steps which include the electrolysis of an aqueous sodium chloride solution to sodium chlorate, which is in turn electrolytically converted to sodium perchlorate. The sodium perchlorate is then reacted with ammonium and chloride ions to produce ammonium perchlorate and the by-product, sodium chloride.

  2. reacting the sodium perchlorate with ammonium chloride

  3. sodium perchlorate might be reacted with ammonia gas in the presence of carbon dioxide, to produce ammonium perchlorate. This alternative procedure has been generally unsuccessful because of the difiiculty of separating the resulting sodium bicarbonate from the product, ammonium perchlorate.

Process 2 is described in another patent. Read more to know the purification and the precautions needed.

... the reaction is carried out by mixing aqueous solutions of the reactants. The concentrations of the solutions are such that the resultant ammonium perchlorate precipitates out of the aqueous medium. The ammonium perchlorate crystals recovered therefrom contain 5% to by weight of the mother liquor. The product is usually contaminated with the Water soluble alkali salt, the byproduct of the reaction, in the mother liquor.

Note: direct electrolysis of ammonium chlorate would not yield ammonium perchlorate as there would be chlorate contamination. In fact, there should be no chlorate as reactants. (Here)


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