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The semiconductor materials are either elementary such as silicon and germanium or compound such as gallium arsenide. Silicon is the most used semiconductor for discrete devices and integrated circuits.

However, other metalloids like antimony and tellurium are not used as semiconductors. Is it because they are too expensive to extract or is there another reason for this?

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    $\begingroup$ Astatine is highly radioactive and unstable, most stable isotope half life about 8hrs. Not a desirable characteristic for a semiconductor $\endgroup$ – Waylander Feb 19 '18 at 22:45
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    $\begingroup$ It's not important if sth is metalloid, important is its bandgap. $\endgroup$ – Mithoron Feb 19 '18 at 23:02
  • $\begingroup$ Alright, Astatine is out of the picture, but what about the others? @Waylander $\endgroup$ – dr.drizzy Feb 19 '18 at 23:02
  • $\begingroup$ The ones you mention aren’t semiconductors. Carbon is a wide band gap semiconductor, with limited doping options. Tin and lead are semi metals and metals. Not much else to say... $\endgroup$ – Jon Custer Feb 19 '18 at 23:18
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The statement, "metalloids like [a]ntimony and [t]ellurium are not used as semiconductors", is untrue:

That said, there are various reasons why these semiconductors have not replaced silicon, which is plentiful, usable to beyond 400 K, resistant to degradation by air, and has an established fabrication technology, for the majority of electronic uses. GaAs, GaN, SiC and other semiconducting compounds are being used increasingly, though, for high-speed electronics, high-temperature devices and lasers.

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    $\begingroup$ While bismuth telluride is indeed used in thermoelectrics, it is a compound. Neither Bi nor Te is itself a semiconductor (like neither Ga nor As are, individually, semiconductors). $\endgroup$ – Jon Custer Feb 20 '18 at 14:12
  • $\begingroup$ A recent paper on the thermodynamics of the Bi-Te system is sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/… - three line compounds and a broad phase field in addition to the elements. $\endgroup$ – Jon Custer Feb 20 '18 at 15:46
  • $\begingroup$ Te-Bi, as @JonCuster states, is not a single element. However, various literature cites it as either an alloy or an intermetallic compound of definite proportions. In either case, it shouldn't be in the answer and has been removed. BTW, Bi and Te can be used for semiconductor devices. $\endgroup$ – DrMoishe Pippik Feb 20 '18 at 15:53

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