First I have to ask about the premise of your question- why are you teaching yourself chemistry from a book on heterocyclic compounds? The rest of your question suggests you've skipped the basics and jumped to fairly advanced stuff. There are many good introductory chemistry that will walk you through problems similar to this one that will be a far easier starting point than heterocyclic compounds.
Assuming your general question is "how do I do calculations on oxidation reactions?", you fill find whole chapters and even books on the topic. I would highly recommend starting with something like "What is the balanced reaction of combusting propane (C3H8) in pure oxygen?" You will need this kind of basis to be able to work up problems like the one you ask about with many possible products and spectator species.
This will get you started: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Combustion#Chemical_equations with answer to the first question. In general though, pick up a used introduction to chemistry book up off Amazon for $10 and start with those walk throughs.
Hope this helps answer your real question and please let me know if I misunderstood and you had a more specific question about this particular problem.
EDIT: For the yield questions, you can use the the balanced equation and molecular weights to come up with a yield.
You'll have something like:
If they give you a mass (or mass flow rate) of thiazole, you could further convert this to a mass (or mass flow rate) of products.