Generally you use Acetone. The following is taken from
Enoki, Toshiaki, and Tsuneya Andō. 2018. Physics and Chemistry of Graphene : Graphene to Nanographene p. 94
The Scotch tape method is very common in the fabrication of
graphene devices, which are mainly used in research into the
fundamental properties of graphene. It can produce high-quality
graphene with lateral sizes ≤ 0.1 mm; however, controlling the size
and position of the graphene is almost impossible. The following is
the typical procedure of the Scotch tape method:
(i) Place a few flakes of graphite (≈ 1 mm) on the adhesive side
of a plastic sticky tape with tweezers (Fig. 3.1(a)). Scotch tape
(3M) and Nitto tape are commonly used. Natural graphite,
Kish graphite, or HOPG (highly oriented pyrolytic graphite) is
usually used for the starting material.
(ii) Fold the adhesive side to sandwich the graphite flakes and
press the tape firmly (Fig. 3.1(b)).
(iii) Peel the tape apart slowly, so that the graphite flakes are
cleaved and attached on both sides of the tape (Fig. 3.1(c)).
(iv) Repeat the second and the third steps with slightly shifting
the fold line, so that the graphite flakes do not overlap (Fig.
(v) Stop repeating the cleavage when graphite flakes spread over
the sticky tape (Fig. 3.1(e)).
(vi) Prepare a silicon substrate with a silicon dioxide layer on
the top surface (Fig. 3.1(f)). Place address markers on the
surface in advance using photolithography so that one can
easily locate the position of a graphene flake in an image.
These markers are indispensable for further microfabrication
on graphene. An example of the address markers is shown in
(vii) Attach the adhesive side of the tape with the graphite flakes to
a silicon substrate, and gently rub the surface to remove any
air between the substrate and the tape (Fig. 3.1(g)).
(viii) Slowly peel the tape off the substrate (for example, more than
2 min for a 1 cm substrate) (Fig. 3.1(h)). Not only graphite
flakes but also some adhesive remains on the substrate. The
latter can be removed by submerging the substrate in acetone
for a few seconds.
It is also reported that in the scotch tape method, not only graphene flakes but also a large amount of adhesive is attached to the substrate. You get rid of it immersing the substrate in Acetone. Other methods are reported in the reference too.
There are lots of aspect about adhesion. About scotch tape the most interesting answer you can find here "https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/what-exactly-is-the-physi/" is the following
"The simplest answer that I can give to the question is that pressure-sensitive adhesives (which are polymers) are 'tacky' or 'sticky' because they are essentially very high viscosity liquids that also have some elastic characteristics--in technical terms, they are 'viscoelastic.' This property means that they exhibit some of the characteristics of liquids, and so they will 'wet' a surface to which they are pressed. But then, because of their elasticity, they will resist separation when stressed. Thus, 'stickiness' is strictly a physical (viscoelastic) phenomenon, not a chemical one."