Here is a source that directly answers the question "just want to know if there's a way to derive these rate laws given just the reaction". The answer is generally no except for single-step mechanism, but the exponents will equal to the stoichiometric coefficients for the rate-determining step. Reference link: https://chem.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Physical_and_Theoretical_Chemistry_Textbook_Maps/Supplemental_Modules_(Physical_and_Theoretical_Chemistry)/Kinetics/Rate_Laws/The_Rate_Law , to quote :
"For nearly all forward, irreversible reactions, the rate is proportional to the product of the concentrations of only the reactants, each raised to an exponent. For the general reaction
aA + bB → cC + dD (11)
the rate is proportional to [A]m[B]n :
rate = k[A]m[B]n (12)
This expression is the rate law for the general reaction above, where k is the rate constant....
The dependence of the rate of reaction on the reactant concentrations can often be expressed as a direct proportionality, in which the concentrations may be raised to be the zeroth, first, or second power. The exponent is known as the order of the reaction with respect to that substance. In the reaction above, the overall order of reaction is given by the following:
order = m+n (13)
The order of the chemical equation can only be determined experimentally, i.e., m and n cannot be determined from a balanced chemical equation alone (e.g., Equation 11). The overall order of a reaction is the sum of the orders with respect to the sum of the exponents (Equation 13). Furthermore, the order of a reaction is stated with respect to a named substance in the reaction. The exponents in the rate law are not equal to the stoichiometric coefficients unless the reaction actually occurs via a single step mechanism (an elementary step); however, the exponents are equal to the stoichiometric coefficients of the rate-determining step. In general, the rate law can calculate the rate of reaction from known concentrations for reactants and derive an equation that expresses a reactant as a function of time.
The proportionality factor k, called the rate constant, is a constant at a fixed temperature; nonetheless, the rate constant varies with temperature. "