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What chemicals are there in an anesthetic drug and how it reduces the pain of a person? Are the chemicals used in it safely, dangerous or both?

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closed as too broad by andselisk, Nilay Ghosh, Jan, Wildcat, Mithoron Aug 21 '17 at 13:33

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    $\begingroup$ Asking what chemicals are used is fine, but in most countries they wouldn't be used if they were not safe when used properly. They could be unsafe if not used properly, but that is a far bigger question. $\endgroup$ – matt_black Aug 21 '17 at 8:38
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    $\begingroup$ This is too broad - also the main component of the question (how they work) is not within the scope of chemistry. $\endgroup$ – orthocresol Aug 21 '17 at 8:43
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There are so many different anesthetic drugs ranging from NSAID's, Opiates, and sedatives each group and even each drug working very differently.

For instance Opiates work in that they act as Neurotransmitters and attach to receptors that detect endogenous opiates (opiates created by the body, not sufficient to quell serious pain or to get high off of) in 3 parts of the brain, The Limbic System, The Brain Stem, and The Spinal Cord. The brain then releases dopamine causing the pleasure of opiates This blocking of neuro-receptors in the brain stem and spinal cord is rather complex and involves many levels of interaction including indirect affect by the stimulation of such hormones as serotonin and the complete blockage of some neural pathways.

However the function of such chemicals as lidocaine is very different as it simply blocks sodium from entering the nerve ending (only near site of injection -caine suffix means local anesthetic) thus blocking pain signals and nearly all other feelings from reaching the brain as that part of the nervous system is sort of frozen in place.

While Ibuprofen also works in the brain but on a much simpler count, by blocking the production of prostaglandins indirectly, (prostaglandins are released by the body and cause pain and swelling) Ibuprofen does this by limiting the enzyme Cyclooxygenase which converts arichidonic acid into Prostaglandins H2 which is then converted into Prostaglandins.

If you want something else you must be more specific.

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    $\begingroup$ One more: Hystorical narcotics such as chloroform or diethylether somehow disruption nerves communication by virtue of their lipofilicity, infiltrating membranes and sheaths. Not a detailed comment but gives an idea.. $\endgroup$ – Alchimista Aug 22 '17 at 13:09

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