First, the best yield would be achieved by selectively producing one enantiomer instead of the other. In this case, White wants D-methamphetamine (powerful psychoactive drug), not L-methamphetamine (Vicks Vapor Inhaler). Reaction processes designed to do this are known as "asymmetric synthesis" reactions, because they favor production of one enantiomer over the other.
The pseudoephedrine method for methamphetamine employs one of the more common methods of asymmetric synthesis, called "chiral pool resolution". As you state, starting with an enantiomerically-pure sample of a chiral reagent (pseudoephedrine) as the starting point allows you to preserve the chirality of the finished product, provided the chiral point is not part of any "leaving group" during the reaction. However, again as you show, phenylacetone is achiral, and so the P2P process cannot take advantage of this method.
There are other methods of asymmetric synthesis, however none of them seem applicable to the chemistry shown or described on TV either; none of the reagents or catalysts mentioned would work as chiral catalysts, nor are they bio- or organocatalysts. Metal complexes with chiral ligands can be used to selectively catalyze production of one enantiomer, however the aluminum-mercury amalgam is again achiral. I don't remember any mention of using organocatalysis or biocatalysis, but these are possible.
The remaining route, then, is chiral resolution; let the reaction produce the 50-50 split, then separate the two enantiomers by some means of reactionary and/or physical chemistry. This seems to be the way it works in the real world. The advantage is that most of the methods are pretty cheap and easy; the disadvantage is that your maximum possible yield is 50% (unless you can then run a racemization reaction on the undesireable half to "reshuffle" the chirality of that half; then your yield increases by 50% of the last increase each time you run this step on the undesirable product).
In the case of methamphetamine, this resolution is among the easiest, because methamphetamine forms a "racemic conglomerate" when crystallized. This means, for the non-chemists, that each enantiomer molecule prefers to crystallize with others of the same chiral species, so as the solution cools and the solvent is evaporated off, the D-methamphetamine will form one set of homogeneous crystals and the L-methamphetamine will form another set. This means that all White has to do is slow the evaporation of solvent and subsequent cooling of the pan, letting the largest possible crystals form. Then, the only remaining trick is identifying which crystals have which enantiomer (and as these crystals are translucent and "optically active", observing the polarization pattern of light shone through the crystals will identify which are which).