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So we tried the reaction between Titanium metal with hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid at a similar concentration. While boiling temperatures and constant heat over a long period of time are required to etch $\ce{Ti}$ using $\ce{HCl}$ even cold $\ce{HF}$ is enough to immediately break the protective oxide layer and the metal vigorousely reacts in the solution afterwards.

My question is now why $\ce{HF}$ is so much better at etching and dissolving $\ce{Ti}$ compared to aqua regia or $\ce{HCl}$?

Of course there is a protective oxide layer on the metal but boiling it in $\ce{HCl}$ will also form a purple solution after a while and the color intensifies if heat is applied over a long period of time. So even after the layer is destroyed the metal itself continues to react with the $\ce{HCl}$. For $\ce{HF}$ it reacts way faster so I assume it's not an issue with the protective layer itself but rather the reaction with the pure metal.

I know for glass and $\ce{HF}$ it's a combination where $\ce{H2F+}$ reacts with $\ce{Si-OH}$ endgroups and increases the electron density on the bridging oxygen which makes them more basic and the $\ce{Si-O-Si}$ bond breaks to form $\ce{Si-OH}$ bonds. But this is all for the oxides and I assume the titanium dioxide will be dissolved in a similar manner.

For metals I couldn't find much information on the topic. I know there are some similar elements, Niobium, Silicon, etc. they all require $\ce{HF}$ to be etched or dissolved.

Maybe it's the case because a $\ce{Ti-F}$ bond, much like a $\ce{Ti-O}$ "bond" is way stronger than a $\ce{Ti-Cl}$ bond? Which would explain why $\ce{HF}$ starts the reaction faster as this unique $\ce{HF/H2F+}$ mechanism seems to work pretty well for tough oxides.

Maybe it's also just the fact that more energy is produced when a $\ce{Ti-F}$ bond forms but the fast reaction starts immediately so it shouldn't just be the heat that is produced enhancing the reaction.

The process itself is a redox-reaction but the essential part here is the $\ce{H+}$ not the counter-ion. So from a redox perspective it should be pretty much the same, unless the redox potential and the overall redox reaction is influenced by the $\ce{Ti-F}$ bond formation, like the hydration enthalphy adds to the oxidative potential of oxygen and suddenly $\ce{Cu(I)}$ turns into $\ce{Cu(II)}$ once the insoluble $\ce{CuCl}$ is added to water.

(Also I'm sorry, but I cannot create a suitable tag with my score at the moment)

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