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Covalent bonds are formed by sharing electrons. The pictures depicting this bond make it seem like that the shared electrons stay in a fixed/limited place. What happens in reality? If they rotate around their nucleus how the shared electrons hold the two nuclei in an atom?

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  • $\begingroup$ Electrons don't rotate, nor do they rotate around their associated nuclei if we are taking about atoms in a molecule. $\endgroup$ – Todd Minehardt Mar 17 '17 at 14:17
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Let's consider a simple case, $\ce{H2}$. When the two nuclei come closer to each other (starting from a long distance), the electrons benefit in terms of energy because they now enjoy being attracted to two nuclei instead of just one. This energy gain is (partly) responsible for the bond dissociation energy, which needs to be invested in order to break the bond again. For a discussion on why the nucleus-electron interaction outweighs the electron-electron repulsion, see this question.

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