Consider the following resonance structures of Nitro-benzene:
It is written in the book that because the positive charge is always at $-o$ or $-p$ positions, Nitro group in benzene has meta directing effect. Which means it is easier to attach substituent electrophilic groups at $-m$ position than $-o$ and $-p$ positions.
The reason for the above conclusion is given that because of positive charge at $-o$ and $-p$,$-m$ is relatively negatively charged.
These have a negative charge on $-p$ and $-o$ group. This simply conflicts with everything said in the last paragraph.
Also, these structures are as prominent as others in the book because of having the same number of charges.
- What separates the structures in the book with these ones? why structures in the book predict the reaction mechanism of Nitrobenzene while the structures that have been drawn by me don't.