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For example can I introduce salts that have a chaotropic or kosmotropic affect on ethanol? Or is this phenomenon restricted to water? If this phenomenon does occur in other polar solvents, does it follow the Hofmeister series as well? Are there any papers out there on this phenomenon in polar non-aqueous solvents?

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    $\begingroup$ As far as I understand, chaotropism and kosmotropism are merely fancy words to describe whether a solute has $\Delta S_{solvation}>0$ or $\Delta S_{solvation}<0$, respectively, so I'm pretty sure it extends to any solvent. Surely each solvent has their own series of ordering/disordering solutes, given how different the intermolecular interactions can be. $\endgroup$ Commented Nov 16, 2013 at 0:14

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Chaotropic and kosmotropic effects of solutes can occur in any solvent in which interactions between solvent molecules lead to a more ordered structure, like a hydrogen bonding network in water. Such a network will also be present in alcohols like ethanol, although to a lesser degree, because the alcohol molecules have only one proton which can act as a hydrogen bond donor. The Hofmeister (or lyotropic) series for alcohols might still be similar to that for water (not identical), but it will be more different with increasing structural difference between the solvent molecule and water. In fact, the Hofmeister series for water is still not fully understood on a molecular basis, as it is described in this post, and this makes it difficult to predict Hofmeister series for other polar, non-aqueous solvents.

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