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I would like to have a solution with a pentavalent positive ion. I need something that, preferably in water: $\ce{XY -> X^5+ + Y^5-}$. What can XY be?

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    $\begingroup$ I don't think this is too broad, considering that as far as I know, no such compound exists. $\endgroup$ – orthocresol Feb 28 '17 at 22:52
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    $\begingroup$ If you consider a small polymer chain with eg 5 amine groups it can exist, but 5+ is a very high charge, so you need some really strong stabilization mechanism if you want to concentrate it to a single group or small molecule. $\endgroup$ – Greg Mar 1 '17 at 0:44
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    $\begingroup$ You won't get a +5 charge on a single atom (or even a small molecule) in water. It will be heavily coordinated by water/hydroxo/oxo ligands. $\endgroup$ – bon Mar 1 '17 at 8:29
  • $\begingroup$ Just to back this up there aren't a huge amount of single atom tetravalent simply hydrated ions that come to mind, let alone pentavalent, if it is single atoms you are looking for. For the cation Cerium, Thorium and Uranium are possibilities that come to mind, but without looking them up I can't be sure. $\endgroup$ – Ian Bush Mar 1 '17 at 9:00
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Even the tetravalent cations (most of them) are heavily hydrolyzed and barely exist in water solutions. Pentavalent cation is even more of a challenge. Protactinium might be a possibility, but you can't have it anyway.

Speaking of anions, there is not even a trivalent single-atom anion that would not hydrolyze instantly and completely upon touching water.

On the other hand, polyatomic anions (and cations, for that matter) can have pretty much any charge you want.

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One five-charge anion you might see is tri(poly)phosphate, as in the sodium salt $\ce{Na_5P_3O_10}$. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sodium_triphosphate.

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