The concept to understand here is that most theories in physics and chemistry are obtained by observing then theorizing, this results in the theories and models being made in such a way that they can explain most (if not all) observable phenomenon.
So, when Bohr made his model of the atom, it had to explain the the phenomenon of "X-ray emission" otherwise it wouldn't be accepted, because, X-ray emission is an observed phenomenon of atoms. Following on, it was discovered that the Bohr-model couldn't explain all observable phenomenon as equipment got better and more things could be seen (notably the splitting of spectral lines in magnetic fields). So any theory that followed on to explain this splitting of spectral lines had to explain X-ray emission as well, without disturbing the results of Bohr's theory.
A suitable analogy would be the discovery of special relativity by Einstein, whatever discovered had to explain why Newton's Law had stuck around for hundred's of years without people realizing it was wrong. (And it did, the correction at velocities we know are less than one part in a million and that's why we didn't think Newton was wrong)
So the deeper question is, even a one part in a million error is still an error and so we should know that the theory is wrong even early on... this is not the case as most instrumental errors on their own are much larger in this regard (at least in Newton's time), and the same applies here in that older instruments weren't usually sensitive enough to notice the change brought on by quantum mechanics on X-ray emission to that of Moseley's rough equation. (Though now it is usually possible to detect differences to a good degree.)
So to the final part of your question, there is a horrendous equation waiting if you want to plug in exact values to find the exact wavenumber, but most like the instrument barely notices a difference, so in a sense, it doesn't matter which theory we use. (It's very well possible a hundred years down the road, another genius comes up with an even smaller correction that can be observed only with futuristic devices)