Two related questions:
(1) It's my understanding that for a galvanic cell, as electrons flow from the anode to the cathode, the cathode (+) becomes negatively charged due to the accumulation of electrons. If I have a sodium chloride electrolyte, the sodium ions will move toward the cathode. However, does that mean chloride will not be reduced at the cathode?
(2) Is the same true for an electrolytic cell? The cathode is (-), so I assume it stays negative. But, what if I wanted to force the reduction of an anion like perchlorate - is it possible or will there be too great of an electrostatic barrier?
I see people reporting on the electrocatalytic reduction of anions, but I don't understand how this is possible if the ionic current is the opposite direction.