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The deep ocean depths have very high pressure and freezing temperatures. Could one or both of these characteristics be used to desalinate seawater?

Reverse osmosis uses high pressure to separate salt from seawater to make freshwater. Freezing seawater can also make freshwater. Less energy would be utilized in both processes.

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    $\begingroup$ No, you cannot. You'd still have to raise the newly made freshwater up to sea level. There's no free lunch. $\endgroup$ – Karl Jan 5 '17 at 2:38
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If there is a problem raising the freshwater to the top, why not make ice cubes from the freezing ocean depth and have them float to the top via a vertical pipe? The high ocean depth pressure would make membrane technology less energy intensive.

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The deepest points in oceans are a bit far away from continental masses and also not near desert countries (Persian Gulf, Sahara and Central Asia) however there is another idea, to use mechanical pressure forced onto seawater, in large vessels, to squeeze the NaCl molecules from H2O molecules, just so they sink to the bottom.

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