Was there any false chemical element introduced in history of chemistry. I mean a substance that after a while proved that it was not an element.
The example that comes to mind is didymium, which turned out to be a mixture of praesodymium and neodymium. The term is still used, as far as I know, to refer to glass doped with a mixture of these lanthanides. This is discussed in one of the 'Chemistry in its element' podcast episodes.
As it turns out, wikipedia has a category called 'Misidentified Chemical Elements'. Especially notable are illmenium, dianium and pelopium, which were all likely mixtures of niobium and tantalum, two rather similar elements.