Why is the spin quantum number of an electron +1\2 or -1\2 in an atom? Is this an experimental value or theoretical value?
It is both experimental and theoretical. Electrons have angular momentum, and sometimes we want to discuss whether it lines up with another direction (ie typically the direction an electromagnetic field, since electrons are charged their angular momentum makes them magnetism and that interacts with electromagnetic field).
How should we talk about the direction of the angular momentum? We can say "up" and "down" or "forwards" and "backwards", and sometimes we do that. But if we want to use it in calculations, it is easier to give them numbers. So what numbers should we give? They are opposite directions so really it makes sense to use opposite numbers. So what opposite numbers should we use? We can use any, so why not use a gap of "1" between them? So what opposite numbers have a gap of 1 between them? 1/2 and -1/2.
There are some other detailed reasons why 1/2 is a convenient number, but it is in my view fair to say we just want to represent two opposite directions in calculations, and the numbers 1/2 and -1/2 suit this well.