Phosphorus can form 5 bonds like in the case of phosphate. While nitrogen is known to make a maximum of 4 bonds (3 covalent, 1 dative covalent). But why is this so?

Is it because nitrogen doesn't have available d orbitals while phosphorus has available d orbitals? Or does the presence of d orbitals have nothing to do with this and it's the sizes of both atoms that allows them to make more bonds?



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