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Certain molecules can be joined by the removal of water in a process called:

  1. Hydration.

  2. Hydrolysis.

  3. Neutralization.

  4. Condensation.

I know that the process of hydration is defined as, "A compound produced by combining a substance chemically with water."

The process of hydrolysis is defined as, "The chemical breakdown of a compound due to reaction with water."

Neutralization is a chemical reaction in which an acid and a base react quantitatively with each other.

Condensation is the conversion of a vapor or gas to a liquid.

The answer is most likely (1), but I'd like some feedback and explanation of these definitions!

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    $\begingroup$ Not that kind of condensation. $\endgroup$ – Mithoron Oct 15 '16 at 23:50
  • $\begingroup$ Oops, then what is it? $\endgroup$ – 关一骏 Oct 15 '16 at 23:53
  • $\begingroup$ Is this an example of a condensation reaction? A simple example is the condensation of two amino acids to form a peptide. $\endgroup$ – 关一骏 Oct 15 '16 at 23:56
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Since it is a removal of water, it cannot be hydration which is defined as the addition of water.

Similarly, hydrolysis includes the addition of water to something so that it degrades in some way.

Neutralisation does indeed generate water, but not always one molecule per reaction equivalent (can be two or three) and you do not connect molecules but ions.

Condensation not only has its physical definition you stated but it also means (in a chemical sense) connecting two molecules under formal exclusion of one molecule of water.

Note that in many to most processes, the water exclusion is entirely formal and what actually is excluded is something like $\ce{H2PO4-}$.

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