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I am trying to make a copper sulfate electroplating solution. I came across a document (Schlesinger and Paunovic 2011) which mentions the amount of copper sulfate that should be added to water to create such a solution. In Table 2.1 on the bottom of page 35, it has two columns: one for conventional solutions and one for high throw solutions.

I read another paper (Nikolova and Watkowski) which talks about high throw copper electroplating process. All I could glean from the paper was that high throw solutions enable higher aspect ratios for copper PCBs.

Please reply if anyone knows what high throw solutions are.

References:

Nikolova, Maria, and Jim Watkowski. “INNOVATIVE HIGH THROW COPPER ELECTROPLATING PROCESS FOR METALLIZATION OF PCB.”

Schlesinger, M., and M. Paunovic. 2011. Modern Electroplating. The ECS Series of Texts and Monographs. Wiley. http://books.google.com/books?id=j3OSKTCuO00C.

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This page suggests that throwing power is the ability to coat a surface evenly regardless of current density differences, and thus to produce an even plating thickness across the whole of a surface.

A solution with high throwing power would thus have the ability to produce a good, close-to-uniform coating on more difficult surface shapes.

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I googled and learned from a webpage that "The ability of a solution to plate evenly over a large area (‘covering power’), and to plate into holes (‘throwing power’) depends on the current density, the concentration of acid and copper ions, the agitation of the solution, the anode-to-cathode separation, and the bath additives."

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  • $\begingroup$ Welcome to Chemistry.SE. Could you summarize the source you linked? It helps combat link rot. $\endgroup$ – Ben Norris Nov 13 '13 at 22:50

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