I would like to have an in-depth understanding of Li-ion batteries functionality, at atomic level. Can anyone help me to understand it? I have included some known background to support my questions.
For a fully charged battery:
The theory says that all (let's assume an ideal case) the Li-ions are in the anode, right? But are they really ions at this point or simply neutral atoms where the numbers of electrons is equal to the number of protons? In other words, are there ions or atoms in the anode? See figure below for a single Li-"ion":
Do we say that the electrical energy is stored in the electrons or is this a false statement, considering that batteries store chemical energy by definition? If we say that it is only chemical energy, how does one make the conversion between electrical energy and chemical energy? Is it stored in bonds?
Is the anode "more energetic" than the cathode in this case, considering that there are more electrons in the anode?
- The theory says that the load "steals" the electrons which travel through the load and then "land" back into the cathode. Is the electrical energy from the electrons used by the load and then they go back to the cathode "empty"? (According to the definition of internal energy, the work is done by kinetic energy due to movement of electrons or molecules).
Fully discharged battery
- Now we are in the situation where "all" the ions are back to the cathode. At this point, are there less electrons in the cathode or why is the battery discharged? Popularly, the battery is "out of fuel", but how do we actually translate this into energetic phenomena?
I appreciate any type of help, recommendation or mathematical explanation.
And please don't tell me that I need to go and read the basics of thermodynamics and stuff, because I did that, but none of the books/pages that I found describe these things at an atomic level. However, any recommendation of a book/page that does that will be highly appreciated!
Thank you very much in advance!