# What is the difference between exponential factor and orientation factor in case of Arrhenius equation?

As per the book (Nivaldo J. Tro)

The Frequency Factor: The number of approaches to the activation barrier per unit time.

The Exponential factor: Number between 0 and 1 that represents the fraction of molecules that have enough energy to make it over the activation barrier on a given approach. The exponential factor is the fraction of approaches that are actually successful and result in the product.

Collision Frequency: It is the number of collisions that occurs per unit time.

Orientation Factor: Usually between 0 and 1, which represents the fraction of collisions with an orientation that allows the reaction to occur

I am unable to distinguish the between the exponential factor and orientation factor. Aren't they saying the same thing? How do they differ from each other?

Another doubt is what does the number of approaches mean? i.e. number of approaches taken by a single reactant per sec, or all reactant per sec.

The collision frequency is, unsurprisingly, just how fast we throw the darts. The orientation factor and exponential factor basically act as fractions that determine what percent of collisions are successful. If we throw 20 darts per second, but only 16 make it to the board and only 25% of those are bullseyes, then our bullseye rate is $$k = (20$$ darts s$$^{-1})(\frac{16}{20}$$ dartboard hits$$)(\frac{1}{4}$$ bullseyes per dartboard hit$$) = 4$$ bullseyes per second. Similarly, if we have 20 collisions per second, but only 16 have sufficient energy to react, and only 25% of those with sufficient energy are oriented correctly, our reaction rate is $$k = (20$$ collisions s$$^{-1})(\frac{16}{20}$$ energetic successes$$)(\frac{1}{4}$$ correct orientations per energetic success$$) = 4$$ reactions per second.