I don't know what else to write here because my question is the title. Please help.
Several things influence the color, clarity, and hardness of materials. Some of them are:
- Structure: Diamond vs Graphite. The structure, or how atoms are bonded in a mineral can influence both the color and the hardness of a mineral. Diamond and graphite illustrates this. Although both diamond and graphite are made of carbon, their different structures (how they are bonded) makes them different. Graphite is black and brittle whereas diamond is hard and transparent.
- Impurities: Ruby vs Purple Sapphire and Steel. The vast majority of crystals have impurities in them. The impurities inside a material can alter the color of a crystal. Ruby and purple sapphire illustrates this. Ruby and Sapphire are mainly composed of aluminum oxide. However, they contain impurities in them. This is what gives them their different color. Ruby contains Chromium impurities whereas purple sapphire contains vanadium. Impurities can also affect the strength of a crystal. Steel illustrates this. Steel is an alloy composed of iron and carbon. The property of steel changes depending on how much carbon is present in it. Steel with high carbon content tends to make it brittle. However, steel with just the right amount of carbon (around 1%) is stronger.