# In a battery what would happen if you had a perfectly uniform and pure cathode?

I have been watching some videos on how batteries work and they seem to talk about the cathode being the most important. I also watched another video a long time ago and while my memory is blurred it talked about impurities in the cathode being the only reason the electrical charge doesn't flow constantly. While I found this weird I also wonder how generates seem to get this unlimited supply of electrons also so it's only fair for me to assume that the battery can also.

Because of internal resistance, the terminal voltage of a cell that is discharging is smaller in magnitude than the open-circuit voltage and the terminal voltage of a cell that is charging exceeds the open-circuit voltage. An ideal cell has negligible internal resistance, so it would maintain a constant terminal voltage of $$\epsilon$$ until exhausted, then dropping to zero. If such a cell maintained 1.5 volts and stored a charge of one coulomb then on complete discharge it would perform 1.5 joule of work. In actual cells, the internal resistance increases under discharge