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I read from this reference that rubidium is extracted by reduction of its chloride with calcium or sodium. How is it possible?. Their electronegativities are much higher than rubidium. I think rubidium is far more reactive than either and can not be replaced from its salt by any other metal except cesium. While I have also read that cesium itself is replaced from its chloride by magnesium refer to this. How can a less electropositive metal replace a more electropositive metal from its salt? Are there some factors besides electronegativity, reduction potential and other reaction skills?

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    $\begingroup$ both reactions require extrernal source of heat. The process is actually an equilibrium, but at elevated temperatures rubidium and cesium relatively easily evaporate, which is used to shift the equilibrium. $\endgroup$ – permeakra Jun 24 '16 at 21:40
  • $\begingroup$ But @permeakra how an equilibrium is established as extreme reactivity of such elements should not permit equilibrium at all. I think so $\endgroup$ – User5 Jun 25 '16 at 1:44
  • $\begingroup$ still, many processes are equilibriums. These ones included. $\endgroup$ – permeakra Jun 25 '16 at 8:22
  • $\begingroup$ I tried to understand that @permeakra but I didn't even after much reading. Can you please explain it alongwith examples? I am not very good at chemistry. $\endgroup$ – User5 Jun 25 '16 at 20:07
  • $\begingroup$ And if equilibrium can be established between two metals wwith a considerable electronegativity difference then what's the use of electrolysis? Because almost every metal can be extracted by such equilibriums $\endgroup$ – User5 Jun 26 '16 at 23:08

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