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My guess at why diesel produces less carbon monoxide is that more heat is required for combustion of diesel fuel, so there is less incomplete combustion. Therefore rather than carbon monoxide being formed and released, the ability to completely combust means that carbon dioxide is often formed instead. Correct me if I'm wrong.

However, a risk of diesel fuel is that more carbon particulates are produced. But surely this is just a contradiction, because carbon particulates are a result of a lack of oxygen supply and incomplete combustion. Surely if there is enough complete combustion to form carbon dioxide over carbon monoxide, then there is a high enough oxygen supply and temperature to stop carbon particulates forming?

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It seems that the mechanism of particulate formation is not yet well known. This article (preview) states some basics about the composition and formation of Diesel Particulate Matter (DPM):

Diesel particulates form a very complex aerosol system. Despite considerable amount of basic research, neither the formation of PM in the engine cylinder, nor its physical and chemical properties or human health effects are fully understood. [...] The basic fractions of DPM are elemental carbon, heavy hydrocarbons derived from the fuel and lubricating oil, and hydrated sulfuric acid derived from the fuel sulfur. DPM contains a large portion of the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) found in diesel exhaust

Also, it seems that the particulates are formed both during combustion and from gas during dilution. During combustion, carbonaceous agglomorates (soot), metallic ash from lubricating oil, and precursors to particle formation during dilution (sulfur oxides and partially burned hydrocarbons from fuel and lubricating oil) are formed. During dilution, materials such as sulfuric acid and other sulfates, as well as heavy hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon derivatives, are for the most part adsorbed onto the carbonaceous agglomorates formed during combustion. Some material may also nucleate by itself, but most nucleation occurs on the agglomorates.

PDF with explanation of ultrafine particle formation mechanisms

Unfortunately, i found it difficult to find any reason why this is such a big problem with diesel and not with gasoline. Perhaps the composition of the diesel is to blame, not temperature or oxygen supply.

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