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This is really not my field at all, but I am intruiged by the cause of different metals emitting different wavelengths of light. To my knowledge, the more energy needed to "excite" an electron, the higher frequency the light emitted will be.

I came across a website explaining that an atom with a higher "energy gap" will emit light at higher energies/frequencies. In this case, it stated that the energy gap is the amount of energy needed to make electrons "excited".

Is this the same as band gaps? Is there relationship between flame tests colours and band gaps? Are they even related or am I completely on the wrong track?

I would also appreciate any articles on this topic, since I couldn't find any.

So I know how band gaps affect the properties of the substance, but is the amount of energy required to excite the electrons of a substance (as indicated by the flame test) related to its properties?

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    $\begingroup$ In a rush so can't write a proper answer now, but no, they are unrelated - you can see this by sodium and potassium having different flame test colours yet they both have the same band gap, zero, as they are both metals. They are both measuring energy differences yes, but flame tests is in atomic (or possibly small molecular) species while band gap is in the condensed, macroscopic system. And yes, the energy to excite an electron has a huge effect on a substance's properties - I've already said that for a substance to be a metal you must have zero band gap, there are a bazillion others. $\endgroup$ – Ian Bush Apr 22 '16 at 6:23

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