# Side Products of Dow's process

In Dow's process of manufacture of phenol, $\ce{PhCl}$ is fused with $\ce{NaOH}$ at high temperature and pressure. What are the possible side products? And what is the intermediate formed?

I think the intermediate will be benzyne. After the formation of benzyne, $\ce{OH-}$ nucleophilic attack takes place. the reaction mixture also contains some phenoxide ions. So Diphenyl ether is a possible side product (Formed by nucleophilic attack of $\ce{PhO-}$). But the answer given species two side products: Diphenyl ether and p-phenyl phenol. How can I explain the second product?

• $\ce{C6H5ONa}$ might again react with left over $\ce{C6H5Cl + NaOH}$ – Sujith Sizon Mar 5 '16 at 11:19