# What's the composition of gun smoke and is it dangerous?

## Background

I've been conducting an informal (i.e. mental) risk assessment of visiting gun ranges. There are a couple of obvious sources of hazard:

• Injury by bullet
• Hearing loss
• Hot casings flying around
• Gun malfunction

The first one is addressed by the fact that you should assume every gun to be loaded until personally convinced otherwise, and to always keep it pointed at the target area when handling the weapon. The second and third points are addressed by safety measures such as wearing ear and eye protective equipment. The fourth one is kind of a wildcard, because you would assume that people who go shoot guns in a range are professionals with training. This may not always be the case, and statistics of that should be taken into account in the final verdict of the risk assessment, but I will ignore it for the time being.

## The Question

Suddenly, I was struck by the idea that guns also may pose a respiratory hazard. The smoke that is formed has a distinct smell, possibly combined from the lubricant on the gun and the combusted propellant of the bullet. What exactly is this "gun smoke" made of, and should I be concerned for my health in this regard?

An image to show what this gun smoke can look like (Source: Arizona Sonora News):

## Bonus Question

There is an additional level of concern when handling even larger payloads than a simple 9 mm bullet, but the documentation may be restricted and as such I do not require an answer to the following question: Are there any requirements for military personnel operating cannons and other large artillery to protect their airways from the fumes?

• There are two much more significant risks that you missed. First the danger of driving to and from the gun range. Second, many handgun ranges are indoors. The most significant long term risk is from lead dust. – MaxW Jan 29 '16 at 18:07

Toxic smoke from propellant combustion has been known about for over 500 years.. The propellants used today are Nitrogen based, thus nitro glycerin, nitrocellulose and nitro guardine. These produce gases containing oxides of nitrogen, carbon oxides, carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, ammonia and several other gases.. The oxides of nitrogen can be inhaled deeply into the lung thus causing damage as deep as the Alveoli, thus causing bronchiolitis obliterins resulting in a "Pulmonary Edema". This can happen 5 years after exposure.. If you show signs within 24 hours of exposure then oxygen and Arterial Blood gas tests are the solution to treating the condition and knowning the effect. The symptons show just like influenza but no sign of virus. This is known as an Acute Toxic Smoke Inhalation Injury. WW1 and WW2 this was studied to reduce the effect on gun crews on both land and sea. It is still a problem today with Armoured vehicles and Artillery and one of the reason the Navies use unmanned turrets. Look up this file and you will find quite a bit of information about this condition.

Occupational Health - The Soldier and the Industrial base

I had first hand experience of this injury in 1988 and am still alive to tell my story, I had a "Pulmonary Edema" in 1991 and survived that, so I am in the 2% of survivors from that period. In the mid 1990's they discovered how to treat a pulmonary edema thus it has increased the survival rate.

There is thousands of pages of information on this subject, just look for "Propellant exhaust gas exposure" or "Toxic gas inhalation" that will bring up more information.

The military threshold limits are higher than civilian but a tank will expose the crew to 1,300 the TLV for less than 5 minutes if the fume extractor is working. In my case it was not!

• It would help if you could include a source of (link to) the file you are referencing and also to summarise its contents if that is not already part of your answer. If you do quote entire paragraphs, please put the > symbol in front of them for block quote formatting. – Jan Oct 26 '17 at 6:51