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There are six groups of p–block elements in the periodic table numbering from 13 to 18. Boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine and helium head the groups. Their valence shell electronic configuration is $\ce{ns^2 np^{1-6}}$(except for He).

The inner core of the electronic configuration may, however, differ. The difference in inner core of elements greatly influences their physical properties (such as atomic and ionic radii, ionisation enthalpy, etc.) as well as chemical properties

The above lines are from my school's textbook.

How does inner core electron create such differences and and what are inner core electrons?

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  • $\begingroup$ Core electrons are electrons that are not valence electrons. I am sure your textbook has something about periodic trends going down a group. Go and read it. $\endgroup$ – orthocresol Dec 7 '15 at 2:48
  • $\begingroup$ Check out the differences between argon and krypton. Then extrapolate for other p-elements. $\endgroup$ – Jan Dec 15 '15 at 22:17
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Inner core electrons do have a very strong affect on the chemistry of elements,for example inner d orbitals have a very poor shielding effect thus the outer electrons are bounded more strongly to the nucleus thus decreasing their reactivity and oxidation states.You will come across inert pair effect,stability of lower oxidation states down the group etc because of effect of inner core electrons.

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