# When calculating a dihedral angle for a chemical bond, how is the direction defined? What are the most common convention?

I understand the geometry and calculation of a dihedral angle, discussed in this question. It is not clear how the direction is defined for a chemical bond. On the wiki page for dihedral angles, it states that, "the dihedral angle $\phi$ is the counterclockwise angle..." between the planes $P_{123}$ and $P_{234}$ (where $P_{123}$ is defined as the plane containing atoms 1, 2, and 3 in the diagram below, and likewise for $P_{234}$).

$\hspace{45 mm}$ This counterclockwise definition means that the direction of the dihedral angle is defined using the left-hand rule about the line connecting atom 2 to atom 3. The left-hand rule is unusual in mathematics and geometry. Alternatively, this example may be defining the directionality of $\phi$ simply so the result is a positive angle less than $180^\circ$.

I have not been able to find any chemistry standards on this. Is there a common convention?