I know this NMR represents cyclohexanol and I have figured out what each peak represents. If the 3 peaks at 1.9, 1.7,1.5 all represent equatorial protons as they are shifted downfield compared to the axial. How does the peak at 1.3 represent 5 axial protons. Shouldn't they have split signals just like the equatorial protons, due to the electronegativity of the oxygen an its deshielding effect. Or is there a reason why axial protons aren't affected by the electronegativity of the Oxygen.
The distinction between axis and equatorial hydrogens is not going to be visible in an NMR spectrum for cyclohexanol. The conformations of the molecule interconvert too quickly at room temperature to make a distinction in the proton NMR spectrum.
So, in practice, you will only see 4 distinct C-H bond types in the molecule and the splits that will be visible on your spectrum depend on the resolution (which is not particularly high on the spectrum you have). The splits cause by neighbouring hydrogens for the groups between shifts of 1 and 2 overlap even in high resolution spectra and it isn't clear whether what you are seeing this jumble of peaks as 4 separate environments because of the low resolution or whether one of the peaks is an impurity.
Some software packages for structure drawing also generate theoretical NMR plots which can help interpret such spectra.
The 4 conformations (2 chair & 2 boat) of the molecule interconvert too quickly at room temperature to make a distinction in the shown proton NMR spectrum.
(1) Enter Cyclohexanol
(2) Select full math & H NMR
(4) Select 1H NMR : 400 MHz in CDCl3 on left side
One of the possible 4 conformations of the molecule is shown below.
A 1 3.578 B 1 2.84 C 2 1.882 D 2 1.728 E 1 1.542 F 4 1.30 to 1.22 G 1 1.16
So the OP was wrong that the 3 peaks at 1.9, 1.7,1.5 all represent equatorial protons. There are 2-2-1 protons at those peaks.