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Can a chemical be introduced to a volume of water which can actually reduce the volume of water in that container?

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marked as duplicate by Todd Minehardt, Geoff Hutchison, bon, Jan, Jannis Andreska Sep 28 '15 at 12:59

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Yes, at least if only the total volume should decrease:

Density of water: $1000~\mathrm{kg/m^3}$
Density of ethanol: $789~\mathrm{kg/m^3}$
Expected density of 52 Vol.% ethanol solution: $890~\mathrm{kg/m^3}$
True density of 52 Vol.% ethanol solution: $909~\mathrm{kg/m^3}$
All values are for the same conditions.

The volume of every ethanol-water-solution is smaller than the sum of the original volumes of water and ethanol. For example if you add 52 mL of ethanol to 48 mL water you will get a solution with an volume of approximately 97,9 mL.
This is effect is known as volume contraction and depends on the mixing ratio of both components in a nonlinear way. Its reason is the formation of additional bonding forces (e. g. hydrogen briges) between the molecules, which results in a higher denisty.

Note: I don´t think that there is something that can increase density of water in such a way, that the resulting volume is actually smaller than the water's volume.

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